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Open Access

This journal is a peer reviewed, subsidized open access journal where the PetroChina Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, China pays for the publishing costs incurred by the journal. Authors do not have to pay any Article Processing Charge or Open Access Publication
Peer review under the responsibility of Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina.

Access Rights
All articles published open access will be immediately free for everyone to read, download, copy, and distribute. Permitted third party reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following user licenses/the following user license:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND):
Allows users to copy and distribute the Article, provided this is not done for commercial purposes and further does not permit distribution of the Article if it is changed or edited in any way, and provided the user gives appropriate credit (with a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI), provides a link to the license, and that the licensor is not represented as endorsing the use made of the work. The full details of the license are available at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

User Rights
For open access publishing, this journal uses a copyright transfer agreement. Authors will transfer copyright to Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina, but will have the right to reuse the article on the terms of their selected end user license, as well as certain scholarly usage rights. For more information about copyright please find the details on https://www.elsevier.com/copyright.
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