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Guide for Authors


Animal Nutrition

An International Publication for Research Findings Related Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology.

Animal Nutrition encompasses the full gamut of animal nutritional sciences and reviews including, but not limited to, fundamental aspects of animal nutrition such as nutritional requirements, metabolic studies, body composition, energetics, immunology, neuroscience, microbiology, genetics and molecular and cell biology related to nutrition, and more applied aspects of animal nutrition, such as raw material evaluation, feed additives, nutritive value of novel ingredients and feed safety.

Types of paper

Contributions falling into the following categories will be considered for publication: original research papers, reviews, and short communication.

Please ensure that you select the appropriate article type from the list of options when making your submission. Authors contributing to special issues should ensure that they select the special issue article type from the list.


Ethics in publishing

For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see https://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and https://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

Animal experiments
Does your research involve experimentation on animals? If so, please provide name of the ethical committee approving these experiments and confirm authors' compliance with all relevant ethical regulations.

The institutional animal care and use committee statement should appear as the first item in the section of materials and methods in manuscripts, and authors should specify which publicly available animal care and use standards were followed.

Human subjects
Does your study include human subjects? If so, please provide name of the ethical committee approving these experiments, confirm authors' compliance with all relevant ethical regulations, and confirm that written consent has been obtained from all patients.

Informed Consent
If your manuscript related to clinical study, please provide following pieces of information and state them in your manuscript: 1) date of IRB approval and the approval number, 2) status of informed consent (IC); [e.g. Was written IC required? Was your clinical study approved without IC? If so, the reason why?]

I confirm that I have obtained all consents required by applicable law for the publication of any personal details or images of patients, research subjects or other individuals that are used in the materials submitted to Elsevier.?I have retained a written copy of all such consents and I agree to provide Elsevier with copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained if requested by Elsevier.

Clinical research must include IRB approval and patient consent forms.

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential competing interests include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1) a summary declaration of interest statement in the manuscript file. If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Conflict of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2) Detailed disclosures as part of a separate Declaration of Interest form, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches. More information.

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication section of our ethics policy for more information), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck.

Use of inclusive language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Articles should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader, should contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of race, sex, culture or any other characteristic, and should use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, for instance by using 'he or she', 'his/her' instead of 'he' or 'his', and by making use of job titles that are free of stereotyping (e.g. 'chairperson' instead of 'chairman' and 'flight attendant' instead of 'stewardess').

Author contributions

For transparency, we encourage authors to submit an author statement file outlining their individual contributions to the paper using the relevant CRediT roles: Conceptualization; Data curation; Formal analysis; Funding acquisition; Investigation; Methodology; Project administration; Resources; Software; Supervision; Validation; Visualization; Roles/Writing - original draft; Writing - review & editing. Authorship statements should be formatted with the names of authors first and CRediT role(s) following. More details and an example

Changes to authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:

Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement'. Acceptance of the agreement will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the paper for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated. Please see https://www.elsevier.com/funding.

Open access

This is an open access journal: all articles will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.The author does not have any publication charges for open access currently.Permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Peer review

This journal operates a single blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final. For more information on the types of peer review, please visit: https://www.elsevier.com/reviewers/peer-review.

Language services

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who require information about language editing and copyediting services pre- and post-submission please visit http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/ or our customer support site at https://service.elsevier.com for more information.


Submission to this journal proceeds totally online. Please submit your manuscript via EVISE. You will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of the various files. The system automatically converts source files to a single Adobe Acrobat PDF version of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF at submission for the review process. These source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail and via the author's homepage, removing the need for a hard-copy paper trail.

Poorly written and/or presented manuscripts may be returned to authors for upgrading, and manuscripts that do not meet the requirements of format and style may be returned to authors by the editorial office prior to a review for scientific merit, which will result a delay in process time.

Time limit of manuscript revision
If authors do not submit revised manuscripts over 3 months from the date on which they are invited to revise, and has not obtained the delay of modification by the editorial office (subject to the major revision of the trial, agree to postpone the revision), they are deemed to have abandoned the amendment and the manuscript is treated as withdrawn.


Please refer to a recent issue of Animal Nutrition for the format and style.


Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections, but the abstract, conflict of interest, acknowledgments, and references are not included in section numbering. Figures and tables should be placed following the Reference or in separate files, but not in text. All lines including figures and tables should be numbered consecutively. Text should be prepared double-spaced, using Times New Roman font at 12 points. Tables should be prepared single-spaced, using Times New Roman font at 12 or smaller points.

Please click here to view the article template of the journal

Format and style

  • Do use abbreviated unit "s", "min", "h", "d", "wk", "mo", "yr" rather than full words when it is used after a number, e.g. 2 h, 3 min, 20 s, 5 d.
  • Leave a space between all values and their units, e.g. 5 mL, 40° C.
  • No space is between the number and the percentage sign, e.g. 5%, not 5 %.
  • Zeros precede decimals for numbers less than 1.
  • A comma separator is used in numbers greater than 999, e.g. 1,000, 2,000 and 10,000.
  • Cardinal numbers are written as numerals, e.g., 3 groups, except when they begin a sentence or appear in a title.
  • When 2 numerals are adjacent in a sentence (spell out the number most easily expressed in words, e.g. two 10-kg samples.
  • Single-digit ordinals are spelled out, i.e. first through ninth; larger ordinals are expressed in numeric form. Single-digit ordinals may be expressed numerically when they form part of a series, e.g. 1st, 3rd, 10th, 20th.
  • When a number is spelled out at the beginning of a sentence, its associated unit is also spelled out, e.g. "Ten milliliters of fluid".
  • Insert spaces around operation signs including "=, −, +, ±, ×, ≥, >, ≤, < " except "/ ", e.g. 0.5 ± 0.12, 1,500 × g, P < 0.05, 2 × 2 factorial arrangement.
  • To indicate a numerical range, use "to" instead of a hyphen or "~", e.g. 15 to 20 min, not 15-20 min, nor 15~20 min.
  • Hyphenate units of measure used as preceding adjectives, e.g., 5-kg sample.
  • Report time using the 24-h system, e.g., 08:10 rather than 8:10 or 08:10 am.
  • Non-repetitive units are used, e.g. 13.0 and 14.2 g, 3.9 ± 0.6 kg/d.
  • The percentage sign is not shared, e.g. 60%, 74% and 25%.
  • Numerals should be used to designate ratios and multiplication factors, e.g. 2:1 and 3-fold increase.
  • Do not use more than one slant line for "per" in a single expression, e.g., use "kg/(animal·d) " or "kg/animal per d" instead of "kg/animal/d".
  • Liter is always a capital letter "L", e.g. mL, dL.
  • The word "Table" is capitalized and never abbreviated.
  • The word "Figure" is abbreviated to "Fig.", but when it is at the beginning of a sentence, it is spelled out as "Figure".
  • The words "experiment" and "equation" should be abbreviated to "Exp." and "Eq.," respectively, when preceding a numeral, e.g. Exp. 1, expect when they are at the beginning of a sentence.
  • Avoid jargon unfamiliar to scientists from other disciplines. Do not use the term "head" to refer to an animal or group of animals. Instead, use "animal, sow, ewe, steer, heifer, cattle", etc.
  • Restrict the use of "while" and "since" to meanings related to time. Appropriate substitutes include "and ", "but" or "whereas" for "while" and "because" "even though" or "although" for "since".
  • Breed and variety names should be capitalized, e.g., Landrace and Hereford, E. coli.
  • Use italics to designate genus and species (e.g., Bos taurus; Lactobacillus reuteri; Hepu geese; Meishan pig; Beijing ducks), fungi (e.g., Aspergillus flavus), and botanical varieties (e.g., Medicago sativa).
  • P (probability) should always be in italics, such as "P-value".
  • Units of measurement not associated with a number should be spelled out rather than abbreviated, e.g., "lysine content was measured in milligrams per kilogram of diet".

Use of word processing software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.


If the LaTeX file is suitable, proofs will be produced without rekeying the text. The article should preferably be written using Elsevier's document class 'elsarticle', or alternatively any of the other recognized classes and formats supported in Elsevier's electronic submissions system, for further information visit our Support Center.
The Elsevier 'elsarticle' LaTeX style file package (including detailed instructions for LaTeX preparation) can be obtained from the Quickguide: https://www.elsevier.com/latex. It consists of the file: elsarticle.cls, complete user documentation for the class file, bibliographic style files in various styles, and template files for a quick start.

Article structure

  1. Title Page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Materials and methods
  5. Results
  6. Discussion
  7. Conclusion(s)
  8. Conflict of interest
  9. Acknowledgements
  10. References
  11. Figures
  12. Tables
  13. Appendices

Title page

Title: Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Do not use non-standard or uncommon abbreviations. With only the first word and any proper nouns capitalized. If possible, avoid using the word "effect" in the title.
Author names and affiliations: Author names are spelled out in full and separated by commas with the given name at first and the family name at last, and initials are used for middle names. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. There is an asterisk to indicate the corresponding author(s). Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full post address of each affiliation, including 1) affiliated institution; 2) city; 3) ZIP or postal code; and 4) country.
Corresponding author: Please use an asterisk (*) to indicate the corresponding author, who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author. If more than one corresponding author, use "(author's name)" and a comma to separate the corresponding authors' e-mail addresses.
Present/permanent address: If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
• Max 3 authors who contributed equally to the work.


The Abstract is one paragraph, which should not exceed 350 words. Go for shorter rather than longer. The ideal length is 250 words for Animal Nutrition. It begins with a clear statement of the objective, states briefly the principal methods including trial information such as number of animals, number of replicates, states main findings or results with statistical evidence, i.e., P-value, and ends with main implications or conclusions with no references cited.


Immediately after the abstract, provide 5 to 6 keywords or phrases avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, ‘and’, ‘of’). Only capitalize the first letter of each keyword, phrase and proper noun. Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background. It contains a brief justification for conducting the research, the hypotheses to be tested, and the objective(s). Extensive discussion of relevant literature should be included in Discussion, not in Introduction.

Materials and methods

Materials and methods must contain a clear description of how the experiment was conducted and how the data were analyzed. It should provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced.

Diets, periods of experimental activities if appropriate, animals (breed, sex, age, body weight, and weighing conditions), surgical techniques, measurements, additives (do not just give product names or trademark names), and statistical models should be described clearly and fully.

Manufacturer information must be provided at the first mention of each proprietary product used in the research. The generic term for all drugs and chemicals should be used, unless the specific trade name of a drug is directly relevant to the discussion. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

The institutional animal care and use committee statement should appear as the first item in Materials and methods and should specify which publicly available animal care and use standards were followed.


Results should be clear and concise, which explain or elaborate on data presented in the tables. Sufficient data, all with some index of variation attached, including significance level (i.e., P-value) should be presented to allow readers to interpret the results of the experiment.


Discussion should explore the significance of the results of the work. Discussion integrates the research findings with the body of previously published literature to provide the reader with a broad base on which to accept or reject the hypotheses tested. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Discussion should not refer to any tables or figures, nor should it include P-values (unless citing a P-value from another work).


The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and discussion section.

Conflict of Interest

We declare that we have no financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that can inappropriately influence our work, there is no professional or other personal interest of any nature or kind in any product, service and/or company that could be construed as influencing the content of this paper.


Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List grants with grant numbers, experiment station, and those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.) in succinct and appropriate manner but as not a long list of tributes and accolades.


All publications cited in the text should be presented in a list of references following the text of the manuscript. The manuscript should be carefully checked to ensure that the spelling of authors' names and dates are exactly the same in the text as in the reference list. The accuracy of the references is the responsibility of the author(s).

References published in other than the English language should be avoided, but are acceptable if they include an English language 'Abstract' and the number of non-English language references cited are reasonable (in the view of the handling Editor) relative to the total number of references cited.

References cited in tables or figure legends should be listed at the point where the table or figure is first mentioned in the text.

Citations in text

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text.

Web references

As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references are included in the reference list, not listed separately.

References in a special issue

Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference style

Citations in text

All citations in the text should refer to:
1. Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;
2. Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication;
3. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication.

Citations may be made directly or parenthetically. Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically.
Examples: 'as demonstrated (Allan, 1996a, 1996b, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1995). Kramer et al. (2000) have recently shown ...'
Reference list: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.
Reference to a journal publication:
Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun 2000;163:51–9.
Reference to an article within a journal by DOI:
Slifka MK, Whitton JL. Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. Dig J Mol Med 2000; https://doi.org/10.1007/s801090000086.
Reference to an article within a journal supplement:
Frumin AM, Nussbaum J, Esposito M. Functional asplenia: demonstration of splenic activity by bone marrow scan. Blood 1979;59 (Suppl 1):26-32.
Reference to an abstract:
Ferrara N, Houck K, Jakeman L. The biology of vascular endothelial growth factor. J Acq Immun Def Synd 1993;6:687 (Abstract). Reference to a book:
Strunk Jr W, White EB. The elements of style. 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan, 1979.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, editors. Introduction to the electronic age. New York: E-Publishing Inc.; 1994. p. 281–304.Reference to an online document:
Doe J. Title of subordinate document. In: The dictionary of substances and their effects. Royal Society of Chemistry. 1999. http://www.rsc.org/dose/title of subordinate document [accessed 15 Jan 1999].
Reference to an online database:
Healthwise Knowledgebase. US Pharmacopeia, Rockville. 1998. http://www.healthwise.org [accessed 21 Sept 1998].
Reference to a thesis:
Su J. Research of Fusarium toxins on anti-nutritional effect and its mechanism of pigs. [Doctor Degree Thesis Dissertation]. Sichuang Agricultural University; 2008.

Note shortened form for last page number. e.g.,51–9, and that for more than 6 authors the first 6 should be listed followed by ‘et al.’ For further details you are referred to “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals” (J Am Med Assoc 1997;277:927–34), see also http://www.nlm.nih.gov/tsd/serials/terms_cond.html

Journal abbreviations source

Journal names should be abbreviated according to
Index Medicus journal abbreviations: http://www.nlm.nih. gov/tsd/serials/lji.html;
List of title word abbreviations: http://www.issn.org/2-22661-LTWA-online.php;
CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service): http://www.cas.org/sent.html.


General points

  • Please provide clear figures.
  • Please number figures according to their sequence in the text.
  • Please place each figure above the figure caption.
  • Please re-define non-standard or uncommon abbreviations even they are already defined in the text.
  • If a figure has sub-figures, please label the sub-figures at the upper-left corner using capital letters A, B, C, etc., and describe each sub-figure starting with (A), (B), (C) etc. in the figure caption.
  • Animal Nutrition is a fully electronic publication, authors are encouraged to use color to enhance figures. However, please only use color when absolutely necessary because many people are color blind.

Figure captions
Ensure that each figure has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the figure. Keep text in the figures themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

All axes need a description. It is permissible to use an abbreviation for the axis description as long as it is a common abbreviation or identified in the caption. Units of measure, when needed, follow the axis description, separated by comma. Avoid the use of multiplying factors (e.g., × 10-6) in figure axis labels because of the uncertainty whether the data are to be, or already have been, multiplied by the factor.

Electronic artwork

General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Save text in illustrations as “graphics” or enclose the font.
• Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times, Symbol.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version. .
• Submit each figure as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available.
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please “save as” or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as “graphics”
TIFF: color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1,000 dpi.
TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is'.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color Artwork

Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version.


General points

  • Please submit tables as editable text and not as images.
  • Number tables according to their sequence in the text.
  • Units are separated from headings by a comma, rather than being shown in parentheses.
  • Please define uncommon abbreviations immediately under table, e.g. "DCP = dicalcium phosphate; AID = apparent ileal digestible lysine".
  • Please use numbered footnotes to provide details.
  • The sequence of footnotes is from up to down and from left to right in the table.
  • Each footnote should be placed on a new line.
  • Each column should have a heading.
  • Manufacturer name and location should be provided for any proprietary product appearing in a table.
  • Please use lettered footnotes for statistical comparisons, such as " a, b Within a row (or column), means without a common lowercase superscript differ (P < 0.05). A, B Within a row (or column), means without a common uppercase superscript differ (P < 0.01)."
  • If possible, please do not repeat the same values in text that are presented in Tables.
  • Limit the data field to the minimum needed for meaningful comparison within the accuracy of the methods.
  • Avoid the use of multiplying factors (e.g., × 10-6) in table columns or rows because of the uncertainty whether the data are to be, or already have been, multiplied by the factor.
  • Specify the basis (i.e., as-is, as-fed or dry matter basis) for dietary ingredient and chemical composition data listed in text or in tables. Similarly, specify the basis for tissue composition data (e.g., wet or dry basis).


If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.


General points

  • Where a term/definition is continually referred to, it is written in full when it first appears in text, followed by the subsequent abbreviation in parentheses (even if it was previously defined in the abstract); thereafter, the abbreviation is always used.
  • Non-standard or uncommon abbreviations must be defined in the abstract and redefined at first use in the body of the manuscript and in tables and figures.
  • Ensure that an abbreviation so defined does actually appear later in the text (excluding in figures/tables), otherwise, it should be deleted.
  • Some letters are reserved for chemical elements, e.g. "C" for carbon, please avoid using them.
  • Please avoid using too many abbreviations, which makes the paper much more difficult to read.

Units of measure

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI) and SI derived units that are widely used in conjunction with SI units. If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI.
Please use "mol/L" instead of "M".
Please use "mol/L" instead of the obsolete unit "N".
Please use "mg/kg" instead "ppm" when referring to amount, and "part per million" when referring to concentration.
Please convert "mg %" to other units, such as "mg/L" or "mg/mL"; use "mol/100 mol" rather than "molar percent."
Dietary energy may be expressed in calories or in joules.

Centrifugal force

Centrifugal force should be provided in × g with the duration, temperature, and type of centrifugation, e.g. "centrifuged at 3,000 × g at 4 °C for 15 min". Centrifugation expression using "rpm" or "r/min" should be converted to centrifugal force, because g force depends on radius of the rotor and the speed of revolution. The following website gives a list of conversions: http://www.endmemo.com/bio/grpm.php


Current standard international nomenclature for genes should be adhered to; Gene symbols should be typed in italic font. For human genes, use genetic notation and symbols approved by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (http://www.genenames.org/) or refer to PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/ entrez). The Human Genome Variation Society also has a useful site that provides guidance in naming mutations at http://www.hgvs.org/mutnomen/index.html

Math formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images.
Present simple formulae in the line of text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. Complex equations should be entered using MathType. Display complex formulae separately from the text.
Variables are presented in italics. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).
Please use the multiplication sign "×" or a small x, but not "·" or "*".

Research Data

This journal encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript. If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.

Data Linking

If you have made your research data available in a data repository, you can link your article directly to the dataset. Elsevier collaborates with a number of repositories to link articles on ScienceDirect with relevant repositories, giving readers access to underlying data that give them a better understanding of the research described.

There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.

For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect.

In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN).

Mendeley Data

This journal supports Mendeley Data, enabling you to deposit any research data (including raw and processed data, video, code, software, algorithms, protocols, and methods) associated with your manuscript in a free-to-use, open access repository. During the submission process, after uploading your manuscript, you will have the opportunity to upload your relevant datasets directly to Mendeley Data. The datasets will be listed and directly accessible to readers next to your published article online.

For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.

Data statement

To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential. The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.

Submission checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address: 1) affiliated institution, 2) city, 3) ZIP or postal code and 4) country
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• Keywords
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)

For any further information please visit our customer support site at https://service.elsevier.com.

Additional information

Authors should use the 'Track Changes' option when revising their manuscripts, so that any changes made to the original submission are easily visible to the Editors. Please highlight the revised text. Those revised manuscripts upon which the changes are not clear may be returned to the author.

Specific comments made in the Author Comments in response to referees' comments must be organized clearly. For example, use the same numbering system as the referee, or use 2 columns of which one states the comment and the other the response.


Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. The correct format for citing a DOI is shown as follows (example taken from a document in the journal Physics Letters B):https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059

When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download the free Adobe Reader, version 9 (or higher). Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site.
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and scan the pages and return via e-mail. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author will be notified and receive a link to the published version of the open access article on ScienceDirect. This link is in the form of an article DOI link which will be valid forever and can be shared via email and social networks. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).


You can track your submitted article at https://www.elsevier.com/track-submission. You can track your accepted article at https://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via https://service.elsevier.com.

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