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Recent Energetic Materials Frontiers Articles

Recently published articles from Energetic Materials Frontiers.

Successful development of HAN based green propellant

Available online 25 September 2021
Toshiyuki Katsumi | Keiichi Hori

Research and development of Hydroxyl Ammonium Nitrate based liquid propellant; SHP-163 is reviewed. Starting from the composition selection of the propellant to the development of 1 ​N thruster of Green...

Advancements in Mechanical Raman Spectroscopy for applications in energetic materials

Available online 20 September 2021
Abhijeet Dhiman | Nolan S. Lewis | Tyler Dillard | Meghana Sudarshan | Vikas Tomar

This paper aims to provide a detailed review of the fundamentals and applications of mechanical Raman spectroscopy in the field of energetic materials. Firstly, the principle behind mechanical Raman...

Assessment of the thermal stability, catalytic behavior, and laser ignitability of energetic coordination polymer [Cu(HBTT)(H2O)]n

Available online 11 September 2021
Li-qiong Luo | Hang Zhou | Quan-cheng Liu | Hu Deng | Wen-jia Hao | Jin-kun Guo | Tao Huang | Bo Jin | Ru-fang Peng

Solvent molecules, especially coordinated solvent molecules, vastly affect the energetic properties of energetic coordination polymers (ECPs). Therefore, an effective strategy to maintain energetic...

Outfield overpressure characteristics and flame behavior of fuel vapor explosion in tubes with one weakly covered end

Available online 4 September 2021
Jian-jun Liang | Shi-mao Wang | Pei-li Zhang | Dong Wang | Yi-qi Yang

An experiment system of tubes with one weakly covered end was established, and the outfield characteristics of fuel vapor explosions were studied through experiments. The results are as follows. After...

Outfield overpressure characteristics and flame behavior of fuel vapor explosion in tubes with one weakly covered end

Available online 4 September 2021
Jian-jun Liang | Shi-mao Wang | Pei-li Zhang | Dong Wang | Yi-qi Yang

An experiment system of tubes with one weakly covered end was established, and the outfield characteristics of fuel vapor explosions were studied through experiments. The results are as follows. After...

Bioinspired energetic composites with enhanced interfacial, thermal and mechanical performance by “grafting to” way

Available online 26 August 2021
Cheng-cheng Zeng | Fei-yan Gong | Cong-mei Lin | Guan-song He | Li-ping Pan | Yu-bin Li | Shi-long Hao | Zhi-jian Yang

The mechanical strength was influenced by the quality of the crystal and interfacial interaction between energetic particles and polymeric binders. In this work, rod-like and hairy-spherical 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazine-1-oxide...

Review on the laser-induced performance of photothermal materials for ignition application

Available online 18 August 2021
Han-yue Deng | Liang Wang | Duo Tang | Yong Zhang | Long Zhang

Laser ignition has been widely studied, and is regarded as a potential initiation technique in pyrotechnics owing to its simple ignition sequence, good safety, high ignition consistency, and strong...

Shape of flyers driven by metal-electric explosion: experimental method (Part I)

Available online 12 August 2021
Tao Yi | Fan Lei | Qiu-bo Fu | Xiang-min Liu | Zhi-ming Zhang | Ji-yan Zhang | Jia-ming Yang

To study the internal mechanism of the metal-electric explosion process, it is necessary to obtain internal information regarding the flow field by performing transmission imaging of the electric explosion...

Nanosized niobium (V) and tantalum (V) oxide ceramics as competitive oxidizers within aluminium-based nanothermites

Available online 16 July 2021
Pierre Gibot | Franck Oudot | Bastien Lallemand | Fabien Schnell | Denis Spitzer

Among the energetic mixtures, one category are thermites. Thermites are highly reactive composites described as consisting of a fuel (metal) and an oxidizer (metal oxide) at micron scale. The use of...

Ignition characteristics of nitromethane-doped ethanol in a heated shock tube

Available online 15 July 2021
Yanlei Shang | Chong Li | Li He | Zhenpeng Zhang | Hongbo Ning | Runtong Zhang | S.N. Luo | Jinchun Shi

Ignition delay times of nitromethane-doped ethanol dual fuels are measured under the micro-combustion engine conditions (8 ​× ​105 ​Pa and 904–1477 ​K). The promotion effect of nitromethane on ethanol...

Comparative study on 1,2,3-triazole based azo- and triazene-bridged high-nitrogen energetic materials

June 2021
Shang-biao Feng | Feng-sheng Li | Xin-yuan Zhao | Ya-dong Qian | Teng Fei | Ping Yin | Si-ping Pang

Two different 1,2,3-triazole based energetic compounds, featuring with azo (-NN-) and triazene (-NN–NH-) bridge were investigated. All newly synthesized compounds were fully characterized by multinuclear...

Ageing studies on AP/HTPB based composites solid propellants

June 2021
Hamza Naseem | Jyothsna Yerra | H. Murthy | P.A. Ramakrishna

Components of solid rocket motor that are susceptible to ageing are propellant, insulator, inhibitor, interfaces, igniter system, and seals. Seals, insulator, ignition systems are replaceable but the...

Al/Ni reactive multilayer films enhancing the properties of plasma induced by nanosecond pulsed laser

June 2021
Yao Wang | Wen-zhi Qin | Yong Li | Duo Tang | Liang Wang

In this paper, the influence of Al/Ni reactive multilayer films on laser ablation induced plasma process is investigated. Laser ablation of single Ni layer and Al/Ni RMFs was performed by nanosecond...

Combination of 1,2,3-triazole and 1,2,4-triazole frameworks for new high-energy and low-sensitivity compounds

June 2021
Wenjing Yao | Yubing Xue | Lei Qian | Hongwei Yang | Guangbin Cheng

In this study, a series of energetic compounds based on C–C linked 1,2,3-triazole and 1,2,4-triazole were synthesized and characterized, i.e., 5-(5-nitro-2H-1,2,3-triazole-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,4-diamine...

Silicon nanowire-based energetic materials with significantly improved hygroscopicity

June 2021
Rong-rong Yang | Chang-kun Song | Ya-jie Chen | Guo-wei Zeng | Jia-xin Wang | Jun-hong Chen | Wen-chao Zhang

The large energy release potential and highly adjustable combustion characteristics of nanostructured silicon compounded with sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) make it one of the most attractive inorganic...

Dye-assembled two-dimensional porous HMX for enhanced energy release and safety performance

June 2021
Xu Zhao | Wen Qian | Menghua Zhang | Zijian Li | Qinghua Zhang | Zhijian Yang

The potential practical applications of high-energy 1,3,5,7-tetranittro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX) are hindered by their unfavorable safety behavior and sluggish thermal decomposition. This paper proposes...

Effects of 2CL-20/HMX cocrystals on the thermal decomposition behavior and combustion properties of polyether solid propellants

June 2021
Shui-ping Zhou | Fang Wu | Gen Tang | Yue Wang | Ai-min Pang

Herein, the effects of cocrystals of two nitroamine explosives, namely hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazoctane (HMX), which are denoted as CHC, on the combustion...

Review of the phonon calculations for energetic crystals and their applications

June 2021
Wen Qian | Chaoyang Zhang

The phonon is one of the most important elementary excitation in solid system, as a gene related to the thermal properties and chemical stability of energetic materials. This paper reviews the molecular...

Macrocyclic tetra(azo-) and tetra(azoxyfurazan)s: Comparative study of decomposition and combustion with linear analogs

June 2021
V.P. Sinditskii | A.V. Burzhava | A.B. Sheremetev

Thermal decomposition and combustion of macrocyclic tetra(azofurazan), TATF, and tetra(azoxyfurazan), TOATF, were studied using a number of complementary experimental techniques, namely thermogravimetry,...


March 2021

High-energy hydroxytetrazoles: Design, synthesis and performance

March 2021
Alexander A. Larin | Leonid L. Fershtat

In recent years, the development of novel advanced high-energy density materials has significantly shifted toward nitrogen-containing heterocyclic derivatives, which demonstrate a great potential for...

Atomic-scale identification of microexplosion of aluminum nanoparticles as highly efficient oxidation

March 2021
Gang Li | Liangliang Niu | Yu Liu | Chaoyang Zhang

In this work, it was proposed to employ the particle dispersion velocity (νD), pressure, heat release rate, delay time, and the numbers of Al-clusters and Al–O bonds derived from reactive molecular...

3D Hierarchically ordered porous carbon entrapped Ni nanoparticles as a highly active catalyst for the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate

March 2021
Jin Chen | Bing Huang | Yousong Liu | Zhiqiang Qiao | Xiaodong Li | Guoqing Lv | Guangcheng Yang

The thermal decomposition behavior of ammonium perchlorate (AP) directly influences the combustion performance of the composite solid propellants (CSPs). To enhance the effective thermal decomposition...

Solubility behaviour of CL-20 and HMX in organic solvents and solvates of CL-20

March 2021
Dirk Herrmannsdörfer | Jörg Stierstorfer | Thomas M. Klapötke

2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazoctane (HMX) are promising cocrystal coformers, but only little solubility data are available....

High-energy Al/graphene oxide/CuFe2O4 nanocomposite fabricated by self-assembly: Evaluation of heat release, ignition behavior, and catalytic performance

March 2021
Jinghua Wang | Jingjing Wang | Shaojie Wang | Hui Li | Qilong Yan | Kangzhen Xu

As part of our ongoing search for high-performance nanoenergetic materials, we herein used self-assembly guided by negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) to fabricate a high-energy Al/GO/CuFe2O4 nanocomposite...

Strategies for constructing melt-castable energetic materials: A critical review

March 2021
Qing Ma | Zhenqi Zhang | Wei Yang | Wei Li | Jia Ju | Guijuan Fan

Melt-castable energetic materials are utilized in a wide variety of civilian and military applications, such as construction, demolition, underwater blasting, mining, oil well perforation, and military...

BAMO-THF copolymer-based energetic thermoplastic polyurethanes with a decent bonding property

March 2021
Gang Tang | Zaijuan Zhang | Xiaoyu Li | Yunjun Luo

Despite the high enthalpy of formation of poly(3,3-bis(azidomethyl)oxetane) (PBAMO), it is not readily applicable as a polymeric binder for propellants owing to its low chain flexibility and poor mechanical...

Determination of nucleation kinetics from the induction time of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (FOX-7) in DMSO/Water

March 2021
Siqi Fan | Xiaofei Gu | Xin Zhou | Xiaohui Duan | Hongzhen Li

Elucidation of the crystal nucleation process can provide guidance for controlling crystal size and quality. To understand the nucleation process of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (FOX-7), the induction...

Comparison of biotransformation mechanisms of 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene and its hydride-Meisenheimer metabolite by the old yellow enzyme family of flavoproteins

December 2020
Tong Wei | Zhilin Yang | Mi Zhou | DingguoXu | Yang Zhou

2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a persistent pollutant; for removing it from environment, the biodegradation becomes an economical and environmentally friendly alternative. However, TNT is difficult...

Synthesis of 5/6/5-fused tricyclic-cation-based cyclo-N5− salt with high density and heat of formation

December 2020
Sicheng Liao | Zhiyu Zhou | Kangcai Wang | Yunhe Jin | Jin Luo | Tianlin Liu

Pentazolate anion (cyclo-N5−) containing compounds have attracted wide interest in recent years. In this paper, to explore the fantastic chemistry of cyclo-N5−, a novel polyamino 5/6/5-fused tricyclic-cation-based...

Reactive molecular dynamics insight into the influence of volume filling degree on the thermal explosion of energetic materials and its origin

December 2020
Kai Zhong | Ying Xiong | Chaoyang Zhang

The volume filling degree (VFD) is a universal property of materials whose influence is often overlooked in the assessment of their property and performance. The present work exemplifies its significance...

Methylation of a triazole-fused framework to create novel insensitive energetic materials

December 2020
Xinyu Nie | Caijin Lei | Hualin Xiong | Guangbin Cheng | Hongwei Yang

In this study, the insensitive material 3,7-diamino-6-methyl-7H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b][1,2,4]triazole (3), and a series of its energetic salts, were synthesized. 3-nitroimino-6-methyl-7H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b][1,2,4]triazole...

Fabrication of GO/NH4NO3 composite films by vacuum filtration as laser converter for enhanced photothermal performance

December 2020
Jing Liu | Yong Zhang | Junyu Piao | Jun Liao | Nan Wang | Xiaodong He | Long Zhang

Graphene-based materials have been extensively investigated as light converters for photothermal therapy, energy harvesting, and laser ignition owing to their good light absorption and high thermal...

Microreaction system combining chaotic micromixing with fast mixing and particle growth in liquid-segmented flow for the synthesis of hazardous ionic materials

December 2020
Xingyi Zhou | Cong Chen | Peng Zhu | Shuangfei Zhao | Jinyu Shi | Fanyuhui Yan | Ruiqi Shen | Huanming Xia

A microreaction system, which combines chaotic mixing with liquid-segmented flow for the synthesis of hazardous ionic materials, was established. Previous single micro-segmented flow achieved good mixing...

Azasydnones and their use in Energetic Materials

December 2020
Matthew Gettings | Davin Piercey

Recent publications demonstrate exciting new uses of azasydnones in the development of energetic materials. Facile synthesis routes support a remarkabe variety of substituents for various uses. This...

Anomalous sensitivity related to crystal characteristics of 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitropyrazing-1-oxide (LLM-105)

December 2020
Hongzhen Li | Xiaoqing Zhou | Rong Xu | Shilong Hao | Dong Chen | Xin Zhou

Sensitivity is one of the greatest concerns in explosive materials, and its underlying mechanism remains ambiguous. In this study, 2,6-diamino-3,5- dinitropyrazine -1-oxide (LLM-105) crystals with different...

Effects of alkyl chains on the physicochemical properties of nitroguanidine derivatives

December 2020
Fang Chen | Siwei Song | Yi Wang | Yucun Liu | Qinghua Zhang

Propyl nitroguanidine (PrNQ) is an important nitroguanidine (NQ) derivative and is considered to be promising as a melt-cast carrier explosive (melting point: 98–99 ​°C) due to its low cost, low sensitivity,...

Molecular perovskites as a new platform for designing advanced multi-component energetic crystals

December 2020
Wei-Xiong Zhang | Shao-Li Chen | Yu Shang | Zhi-Hong Yu | Xiao-Ming Chen

Molecular perovskite energetic crystals, as an emerging family of promising practicable energetic materials, have attracted increasing attentions in the past few years. Different from the mainstream...

Recent advances on the crystallization engineering of energetic materials

December 2020
Xue-Xue Zhang | Zhi-Jian Yang | Fude Nie | Qi-Long Yan

The safety properties and desirable detonation performance of energetic materials (EMs) are mutually exclusive, therefore, various strategies including the coating, doping, crystallization, and co-crystallization,...

Analysis of intermolecular interactions in homologous molecular crystals of energetic materials

September 2020
Yilin Cao | Tao Yu | Weipeng Lai | Yingzhe Liu | Bozhou Wang

Crystal packing modes determine the energy and safety performance of energetic materials (EMs) to some extent. To deepen the understanding of the intermolecular interactions in the crystal packings,...

Coupling effect of high temperature and pressure on the decomposition mechanism of crystalline HMX

September 2020
Xiaowei Wu | Zhichao Liu | Weihua Zhu

The coupling effect of temperature and pressure plays a significant role in the behavior of energetic materials. Energetic materials present extremely complex behavior at high temperatures. Handling...

Synthesis of 5-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-2H-tetrazole-derived energetic salts with high thermal stability and low sensitivity

September 2020
Yue Zheng | Xia Zhao | Xiujuan Qi | Kangcai Wang | Tianlin Liu

In this study, a novel energetic compound 3-nitro-1-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid (1) and a series of corresponding energetic salts (2–4) were designed and synthesized. Their chemical...

Investigation of the key active intermediate for the synthesis of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane: Hydrolysis and nitrolysis of 1-acetoxymethyl-3,5,7-trinitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane

September 2020
Yu Zhang | Zishuai Xu | Luyao Zhang | Guangyuan Zhang | Dan He | Xiaolong Wang | Jian Ruan | Delong Zhang | Guoliang Jin | Xiaoping Ma | Xiaoliang He | Yanming Xu | Ying He | Jun Luo

The problem whether 1-hydroxylmethyl-3,5,7-trinitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane is the key active intermediate for the synthesis of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (HMX) from urotropine...

Controllable tuning of energetic crystals by bioinspired polydopamine

September 2020
Congmei Lin | Shijun Liu | Wen Qian | Feiyan Gong | Xu Zhao | Liping Pan | Jianhu Zhang | Zhijian Yang | Jiang Li | Shaoyun Guo

Insensitive high explosive 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and TATB-based formulations are widely used in civil and defense applications. However, it undergoes high deformation on exposure...

Low sensitive energetic material based on the combination of furoxan and 1,3,4-oxadiazole structures

September 2020
Lei Qian | Hongwei Yang | Hualin Xiong | Hao Gu | Jie Tang | Yubing Xue | Guangbin Cheng

In this study, a new series of 3-amino-4-(5-amino-1,3,4-oxadiazole-yl) furoxan derivatives including neutral compounds and energetic salts were synthesized. Their physicochemical properties such as...

Drop-weight impact ignition of CL-20 crystals caused by trapped gases: A high-speed photographic study

September 2020
Chuanguo Chai | Jianming Zhang | Shaojun Yu | Jinjiang Xu | Qian Yu | Xiaogan Dai | Yushi Wen | Ming Li

CL-20 explosive has a wide engineering application foresight due to its high energy while is limited by its mechanical sensitivity. In this regard, to study its ignition mechanisms under impact and...

Enhanced shockwave-absorption ability of the molecular disorder rooting for the reactivity elevation of energetic materials

September 2020
Kai Zhong | Ying Xiong | Jian Liu | Chaoyang Zhang

It is universally believed that the molecular disorder possesses a high reactivity compared to the molecular order and can start the ignition of shocked energetic materials (EMs) from defects, interfaces,...

Graphene oxide induced nanoscale energetic coordination polymer with self-sustaining combustion ability

September 2020
Xiaoxia Ma | Shing-Yam Chan | Jun Zhou | Yatu Chen | Guangcheng Yang | Kaili Zhang

The self-sustaining combustion of energetic materials, especially for propellants and pyrotechnics, is highly expected because it is related to various issues, such as combustion efficiency, ignition...

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