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Most Cited Frontiers of Architectural Research Articles

The most cited articles published since 2014, extracted from Scopus.

Passive cooling techniques through reflective and radiative roofs in tropical houses in Southeast Asia: A literature review

Volume 3, Issue 3, September 2014, Pages 283-297
Karam M. Al-Obaidi | Mazran Ismail | Abdul Malek Abdul Rahman

© 2014 Higher Education Press Limited Company. Cooling is one of the major concerns in building tropical houses. This problem is exacerbated by the heat gain of the roof, which constitutes 70% of the total heat gain. The passive cooling technique is one of the innovative practices and technologies that provide buildings with comfortable conditions through natural means. Reflective and radiative processes are the methods used to decrease heat gain by facilitating the elimination of excess heat in a building's interior to maintain a comfortable environment. Given that the potential of these techniques vary from region to region, their application in the tropics should be examined.Exploring these approaches in detail allows us to rethink how to effectively adapt these techniques to overcome the build-up of heat in modern tropical houses in Southeast Asia. This study reviews the physical characteristics of these approaches to guide architects and building designers. Results indicate a great reduction in operational cost. However, the significant differences in the performance of colour and material properties should be considered, given that the selected approach strongly affects the required thermal conditions of a building.

Using passive cooling strategies to improve thermal performance and reduce energy consumption of residential buildings in U.A.E. buildings

Volume 3, Issue 2, June 2014, Pages 154-165
Hanan M. Taleb

© 2014 Higher Education Press Limited Company. Passive design responds to local climate and site conditions in order to maximise the comfort and health of building users while minimising energy use. The key to designing a passive building is to take best advantage of the local climate. Passive cooling refers to any technologies or design features adopted to reduce the temperature of buildings without the need for power consumption. Consequently, the aim of this study is to test the usefulness of applying selected passive cooling strategies to improve thermal performance and to reduce energy consumption of residential buildings in hot arid climate settings, namely Dubai, United Arab Emirates. One case building was selected and eight passive cooling strategies were applied. Energy simulation software - namely IES - was used to assess the performance of the building. Solar shading performance was also assessed using Sun Cast Analysis, as a part of the IES software. Energy reduction was achieved due to both the harnessing of natural ventilation and the minimising of heat gain in line with applying good shading devices alongside the use of double glazing. Additionally, green roofing proved its potential by acting as an effective roof insulation. The study revealed several significant findings including that the total annual energy consumption of a residential building in Dubai may be reduced by up to 23.6% when a building uses passive cooling strategies.

Development of an adaptive thermal comfort equation for naturally ventilated buildings in hot-humid climates using ASHRAE RP-884 database

Volume 2, Issue 3, September 2013, Pages 278-291
Doris Hooi Chyee Toe | Doris Hooi Chyee Toe | Tetsu Kubota

© 2013 Higher Education Press Limited Company. The objective of this study was to develop an adaptive thermal comfort equation for naturally ventilated buildings in hot-humid climates. The study employed statistical meta-analysis of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) RP-884 database, which covered several climatic zones. The data were carefully sorted into three climate groups including hot-humid, hot-dry, and moderate and were analyzed separately. The results revealed that the adaptive equations for hot-humid and hot-dry climates were analogous with approximate regression coefficients of 0.6, which were nearly twice those of ASHRAE and European standards 55 and EN15251, respectively. The equation using the daily mean outdoor air temperature had the highest coefficient of determination for hot-humid climate, compared with other mean temperatures that considered acclimatization of previous days. Acceptable comfort ranges showed asymmetry and leaned toward operative temperatures below thermal neutrality for all climates. In the hot-humid climate, a lower comfort limit was not observed for naturally ventilated buildings, and the adaptive equation was influenced by indoor air speed rather than indoor relative humidity. The new equation developed in this study can be applied to tropical climates and hot-humid summer seasons of temperate climates.

A study of the impact of environmental loads that penetrate a passive skylight roofing system in Malaysian buildings

Volume 3, Issue 2, June 2014, Pages 178-191
Karam M. Al-Obaidi | Mazran Ismail | Abdul Malek Abdul Rahman

© 2014 Higher Education Press Limited Company. A passive skylight system is a significant building design element that provides an ideal condition for interior spaces. However, the use of this system is limited to specific climatic regions because of its considerable effect on the indoor environment. Malaysia is a tropical country that has favorable natural benefits, such as solar geometry and natural light, which can brighten building interiors throughout the year. However, harnessing this benefit affects spaces, especially those in single-story buildings, because of excessive natural loads. This study reviews a concept to understand the passive behavior of solar radiation in the form of light and heat that falls on, interacts with, and is emitted from a skylight system in a single-story building. The study method is theoretically based on descriptive analysis to assess design requirements. The review shows that designs grounded on the physical aspects of climate (influenced variables), materials (design variables), and human comfort (affected variables) in one process (ESI) can develop the architectural way of thinking rather than estimate the condition based on a limited perspective. This assumption indicates that the adoption of this concept in the preliminary design stage will enable designers to balance the building environment effectively.

The Adaptive Solar Facade: From concept to prototypes

Volume 5, Issue 2, June 2016, Pages 143-156
Zoltan Nagy | Bratislav Svetozarevic | Prageeth Jayathissa | Moritz Begle | Johannes Hofer | Gearoid Lydon | Anja Willmann | Arno Schlueter

© 2016 The Authors. The Adaptive Solar Facade (ASF) is a modular, highly integrated dynamic building facade.The energetic behavior as well as the architectural expression of the facade can be controlled with high spatio-temporal resolution through individually addressable modules. We present the general design process, the current mechanical design, and simulation results on photovoltaic power production and building energy consumption. We introduce the controller concept and show results on solar tracking as well as user interaction. Lastly, we present our current and planned prototypes.

Performance evaluation of residential buildings in public housing estates in Ogun State, Nigeria: Users' satisfaction perspective

Volume 2, Issue 2, June 2013, Pages 178-190
Eziyi Offia Ibem | Akunnaya P. Opoko | Albert B. Adeboye | Dolapo Amole

© 2013 Higher Education Press Limited Company. This study assessed the performance of residential buildings in public housing estates in urban areas of Ogun State Southwest Nigeria. It was based on the notion that users' satisfaction with dwelling units is a measure of the performance of residential buildings in meeting their needs and expectations. A cross sectional survey of 452 household heads in nine public housing estates was conducted in the study area. Data were obtained using structured questionnaire and observation schedule; and were subjected to descriptive statistics and factor analysis. A mean satisfaction score of 3.21 was observed; indicating that the respondents were generally satisfied with the performance of the different components of the buildings. Satisfaction levels were generally higher with privacy and sizes of living and sleeping areas than the availability of water and electricity in the buildings. The type, location and aesthetic appearance as well as size of main activity areas were the most predominant factors that determined satisfaction and indeed the performance of the buildings in meeting users' needs and expectations. The paper highlights critical areas where attention is needed in order to improve the performance of residential buildings and users' satisfaction with public housing projects in Nigeria.

Tree-inspired dendriforms and fractal-like branching structures in architecture: A brief historical overview

Volume 3, Issue 3, September 2014, Pages 298-323
Iasef Md Rian | Mario Sassone

© 2014 Higher Education Press Limited Company. The shapes of trees are complex and fractal-like, and they have a set of physical, mechanical and biological functions. The relation between them always draws attention of human beings throughout history and, focusing on the relation between shape and structural strength, architects have designed a number of treelike structures, referred as dendriforms. The replication and adoption of the treelike patterns for constructing architectural structures have been varied in different time periods based on the existing and advanced knowledge and available technologies. This paper, by briefly discussing the biological functions and the mechanical properties of trees with regard to their shapes, overviews and investigates the chronological evolution and advancements of dendriform and arboreal structures in architecture referring to some important historical as well as contemporary examples.

Performance-driven design with the support of digital tools: Applying discrete event simulation and space syntax on the design of the emergency department

Volume 3, Issue 3, September 2014, Pages 250-264
David Morgareidge | Hui CAI | Jun JIA

© 2014 Higher Education Press Limited Company. Planning the design of the emergency department (ED) is a complex process. Hospital leaders and architects must consider many complex and interdependent factors, including evolving market demands, patient volume, care models, operational processes, staffing, and medical equipment. The application of digital tools, such as discrete event simulation (DES) and space syntax analysis (SSA), allows hospital administrators and designers to quantitatively and objectively optimize their facilities.This paper presents a case study that utilized both DES and SSA to optimize the care process and to design the space in an ED environment. DES was applied in three phases: master planning, process improvement in the existing ED, and designing the new ED. SSA was used to compare the new design with the existing layout to evaluate the effectiveness of the new design in supporting visual surveillance and care coordination.This case study demonstrates that DES and SSA are effective tools for facilitating decision-making related to design, reducing capital and operational costs, and improving organizational performance. DES focuses on operational processes and care flow. SSA complements DES with its strength in linking space to human behavior. Combining both tools can lead to high-performance ED design and can extend to broad applications in health care.

Management and monitoring of public buildings through ICT based systems: Control rules for energy saving with lighting and HVAC services

Volume 2, Issue 2, June 2013, Pages 147-161
C. Aghemo | J. Virgone | G. V. Fracastoro | A. Pellegrino | L. Blaso | J. Savoyat | Kevyn Johannes

© 2013 Higher Education Press Limited Company. The presented work addresses the topic of energy savings in existing public buildings, when no significant retrofits on building envelope or plants can be done and savings can be achieved by designing intelligent ICT-based service to monitor and control environmental conditions, energy loads and plants operation. At the end of 2010 the European Commission, within the Seventh Framework Program, has founded a project entitled "Smart Energy Efficient Middleware for Public Spaces" (SEEMPubS). To achieve this goal the project will implement, in a set of demonstrator buildings, an interoperable web-based software and hardware solution for real-time monitoring and control of lighting, heating, ventilation and air conditioning services, through both wired and wireless sensor networks. In this paper the first phase of the project, concerning the selection of the environments to be used as demonstrator and the definition of the control and monitoring strategies to reduce energy consumptions for lighting and air conditioning, are presented.

Quiet environment: Acoustics of vertical green wall systems of the Islamic urban form

Volume 2, Issue 2, June 2013, Pages 162-177
Mostafa Refat Ismail

© 2013 Higher Education Press Limited Company. The development of sustainability has made the application of green concepts to cityscapes and urban design mandatory and has popularized the installation of vegetation on external street walls. Introducing greenery on external building elements is beneficial to the environment, reducing the heat impact experienced in "urban heat islands" and enhancing an area's visual effect. The popularity of such green systems has necessitated the assessment of their acoustic characteristics and their impact on long-distance noise propagation. These effects become important in hot climates, where the topology of the dense urban texture gives building walls larger areas than exposed streets, thereby amplifying the effects of the former's acoustic characteristics on noise levels. Considering the resultant sound level at a particular location between buildings as the contribution of several remote sources, a simplified computer model based on energy exchange is developed in this study. Owing to the complexity of the urban landscape, buildings are assumed to be an array of rectangular blocks. The computer model is used to investigate the effects of the installation of street vertical vegetation on long-distance noise propagation, as well as those of the geometric parameters of the dense Islamic urban texture on the resultant noise levels.

Healthy campus by open space design: Approaches and guidelines

Volume 3, Issue 4, December 2014, Pages 452-467
Stephen Siu Yu Lau | Stephen Siu Yu Lau | Zhonghua Gou | Yajing Liu

© 2014 Higher Education Press Limited Company. This paper examines the architectural and landscape design strategies and intentions for green, open spaces facilities targeting stress alleviation for learning environments such as those of university campuses in a compact urban setting. Literature reviews provide three prevailing perspectives for physical design pedagogical operatives: healing gardens where greenery and plants produce restorative effects; flexible spaces that accommodate functional needs of different activities; and green buildings that incorporate open space as a catalyst for integrated eco-system. Corresponding design approaches (landscape design, spatial design and green design) are scrutinized by case study. A comparison of two university campuses with different urban contexts is conducted to identify challenges and opportunities for applying these design approaches. For a compact campus, high-dense surroundings may limit the size of an open space and may handicap circulation and accessibility; on the other side, a small open space may provide its users more intimate contact with natural restorative elements and also a more controllable microclimate for physical comfort. A healthy campus should encompass diverse open spaces to satisfy different purposes. Finally, a framework that integrates the three approaches is combined to produce a sustainable design rubric.

Wind comfort in a public urban space-Case study within Dublin Docklands

Volume 2, Issue 1, March 2013, Pages 50-66
Ágota Szucs

© 2013 Higher Education Press Limited Company. Open public spaces provide venues for cultural, recreational events and promote informal social contact between citizens. Successful outdoor spaces promote comfort and invite people to stay outdoors. Provision of thermal comfort outdoors present a challenge, as an extended range of environmental conditions must be dealt with. The present study examines whether climatic characteristics in Dublin facilitate exercising long-term outdoor activities during summer, and investigates the extent to which urban planning and the resulting urban morphology of the built environment influences microclimates created, from the viewpoint of wind environment. Microclimates at Grand Canal Square have been simulated by ENVI-met. Wind velocity has been expressed in relation to that of the "background" climate in order to verify if the site has a wind protecting character or to the contrary, it enhances airflow. The results show for the dominant wind directions (W, SW, S) that 60% higher wind velocity than at Dublin Airport can occur around building corners and at restricted flow sections-preventing any kind of long-term outdoor activity during a "typical" day. S and SW winds cause 15%-20% acceleration at the W waterfront area. Windy urban environment can call forth a limited frequentation of urban space.

A literature review on the improvement strategies of passive design for the roofing system of the modern house in a hot and humid climate region

Volume 5, Issue 1, March 2016, Pages 126-133
Qairuniza Roslan | Siti Halipah Ibrahim | Rohaida Affandi | Mohd Nasrun Mohd Nawi | Azhaili Baharun

© 2015 The Authors. Increase of indoor temperature compared with outdoor temperature is a major concern in modern house design. Occupants suffer from this uncomfortable condition because of overheating indoor temperature. Poor passive design causes heat to be trapped, which influences the rise in indoor temperature. The upper part, which covers the area of the roof, is the most critical part of the house that is exposed to heat caused by high solar radiation and high emissivity levels. During daytime, the roof accumulates heat, which increases the indoor temperature and affects the comfort level of the occupants. To maintain the indoor temperature within the comfort level, most house designs usually depend on mechanical means by using fans or air conditioning systems. The dependence on a mechanical ventilation system could lead to additional costs for its installation, operation, and maintenance. Thus, this study concentrates on reviews on passive design and suggests recommendations for future developments. New proposals or strategies are proposed to improve the current passive design through ventilated and cool roof systems. It is possible to achieve the comfort level inside a house throughout the day by reducing the transmitted heat into the indoor environment and eliminating the internal hot air. These recommendations could become attractive strategies in providing a comfortable indoor temperature to the occupants as well as in minimizing energy consumption.

Research on parametric design method for energy efficiency of green building in architectural scheme phase

Volume 2, Issue 1, March 2013, Pages 11-22
Borong Lin | Qiong Yu | Ziwei Li | Xiaoru Zhou

© 2013 Higher Education Press Limited Company. Based on a large number of researches and engineering practices both domestic and overseas, it is shown that the building parameters to be determined during scheme phase can exert a great effect on the building energy consumption. In this paper, through a combination of the popular design method of building parameterization at present and the design goal of energy saving during the scheme phase, the author carries out researches on the design methods and tool development which are applicable to parameterization of building energy saving in this stage. In connection with the characteristics of both modeling process of parameterization and energy saving design, and by means of steady calculation as well as simulation, this paper establishes an simplified model to calculate the overall energy consumption of air-conditioning, heating, lighting and equipments, and ultimately gives suggestions on design of scheme for energy saving by optimization with the genetic algorithm (GA). On the basis of the model, a software platform is developed by computer language QT and openGL interface and is oriented to the design users and sets up the MMI (human-computer interaction) software interface for parameterization of building energy saving, which achieves automatic modeling of parameterization and promotes research on practical design cases.

Algorithm for constructing an optimally connected rectangular floor plan

Volume 3, Issue 3, September 2014, Pages 324-330
Krishnendra Shekhawat

© 2014 Higher Education Press Limited Company. In most applications, such as urbanism and architecture, randomly utilizing given spaces is certainly not favorable. This study proposes an explicit algorithm for utilizing the given spaces inside a rectangle with satisfactory results. In the literature, connectivity is not considered as a criterion for floor plan design, but it is deemed essential in architecture. For example, dining rooms are preferably connected to kitchens, toilets should be connected to many rooms, and each bedroom should be separated from the other rooms. This paper describes adjacency among spaces and proves that the obtained rectangular floor plan is one of the best ones in terms of connectivity. An architectural and mathematical object called extra spaces is introduced by the proposed algorithm and is subsequently examined in this work.

Significance of house-type as a determinant of residential quality in Osogbo, Southwest Nigeria

Volume 3, Issue 1, March 2014, Pages 20-27
Adesoji David Jiboye

© 2014 Higher Education Press Limited Company. This study investigates the effect of house-types on the assessment of residential quality in Osogbo, Nigeria. Through a questionnaire survey, this study employs a stratified systematic sampling method to select 406 (10%) households from three (3) major residential districts of Osogbo. Data are analyzed using descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The study showed that 80% and 14.8% of the respondents live in contemporary vernacular houses, that is, the "face-me-i-face-you" house, and western apartment houses, respectively. Meanwhile 2.5%, 1.5%, and 1.2% of the respondents live in duplexes, single family houses, and traditional courtyard dwellings, respectively. This result suggests that in Osogbo, the Yoruba traditional courtyard house-type is gradually being replaced by the contemporary vernacular house and the western apartment house-type. Confirming the linear relationship and level of significance among the variables, the ANOVA Test F-value is 2.17 (where p<0.05 probability level), which indicates that house-type significantly affects the assessment of residential quality in Osogbo. The need for the government and others involved in housing delivery to consider the appropriate house-types for and residential preferences of end-users within different sub-cultures when planning for future housing in Nigeria is highlighted.

Privacy, modesty, hospitality, and the design of Muslim homes: A literature review

Volume 4, Issue 1, March 2015, Pages 12-23
Zulkeplee Othman | Rosemary Aird | Laurie Buys

© 2015 Higher Education Press Limited Company. Traditional Islamic teachings and traditions involve guidelines that have direct applications in the domestic sphere. The principles of privacy, modesty, and hospitality are central to these guidelines; each principle has a significant effect on the design of Muslim homes, as well as on the organization of space and domestic behaviors within each home. This paper reviews literature on the privacy, modesty, and hospitality within Muslim homes. Nineteen publications from 1986 to 2013 were selected and analyzed for content related to the meaning of privacy, modesty, and hospitality in Islam and the design of Muslim homes. Despite the commonly shared guidelines for observing privacy, modesty, and hospitality within each home, Muslims living in different countries are influenced by cultural factors that operate within their country of residence. These factors help to shape the architectural styles and use of space within Muslim homes in different ways. Awareness of the multifactorial nature of the influences on the Muslim perception of home and the use of space is necessary for architects, building designers, engineers, and builders to be properly equipped to meet the needs of clients.

Modernity in tradition: Reflections on building design and technology in the Asian vernacular

Volume 4, Issue 1, March 2015, Pages 46-55
Mamun Rashid | Dilshad Rahat Ara

© 2015 Higher Education Press Limited Company. Vernacular buildings across the globe provide instructive examples of sustainable solutions to building problems. Yet, these solutions are assumed to be inapplicable to modern buildings. Despite some views to the contrary, there continues to be a tendency to consider innovative building technology as the hallmark of modern architecture because tradition is commonly viewed as the antonym of modernity. The problem is addressed by practical exercises and fieldwork studies in the application of vernacular traditions to current problems. This study investigates some aspects of mainstream modernist design solutions and concepts inherent in the vernacular of Asia, particularly that of the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT). This work hinges on such ideas and practices as ecological design, modular and incremental design, standardization, and flexible and temporal concepts in the design of spaces. The blurred edges between the traditional and modern technical aspects of building design, as addressed by both vernacular builders and modern architects, are explored.

Contribution of City Prosperity to Decisions on Healthy Building Design: A case study of Tehran

Volume 5, Issue 3, September 2016, Pages 319-331
Negar Mohtashami | Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad | Mohammadreza Bemanian

© 2016 In this paper, the city prosperity manifest is analyzed through a logical process and a framework is then proposed for designing healthy buildings in Tehran. The current status of urbanization in terms of the number of people living together and the changes in old behavior and perspectives have resulted in deficiencies to the health and hygiene of buildings apart from their surrounding environment. Consequently, these problems have affected people׳s well-being. This study mainly aims to determine policies and strategies for the architectural design of healthy buildings according to health and safety conditions that influence the quality of internal spaces and external environment of cities. The study is conducted based on logical reasoning and uses focus group and in-depth interviews to assess the final result. The result is a framework that suggests a number of policies that can promote the mental and physical health as well as hygiene of residents through healthy buildings.

Sound preferences of the dense urban environment: Soundscape of Cairo

Volume 3, Issue 1, March 2014, Pages 55-68
Mostafa Refat Ismail

© 2013 Higher Education Press Limited Company. A questionnaire study was conducted to investigate the soundscape preferences of the sonic environment in Cairo. Participants, who were Cairo residents, were questioned about their appraisal of familiar urban soundscapes in a close- and open-ended format questionnaire.Psycholinguistic data analysis of verbal descriptions expressed by respondents was conducted to identify the relevance of semantic categories of environmental sounds and quantitative soundscape aspects for the urban sonic environment of Cairo. Results confirmed a direct relevance of the linguistic semantic auditory judgment and of the outputs of the quantitative close-ended questions. Cairenes were also found to express their sonic environment linguistically based on physical properties rather than semantic features and values.Analyzing the relative annoyance increase (. RAI) of the close-ended part, overall positive RAI values for all sound categories reveal how sensitive to noise Cairo residents are. Results further showed that at an RAI value of approximately 27%, sound category perception transforms from positive to negative.

New urbanization: A new vision of China's urban-rural development and planning

Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2015, Pages 166-168
Jianguo Wang | Xingping Wang

A GIS-based methodology for safe site selection of a building in a hilly region

Volume 5, Issue 1, March 2016, Pages 39-51
Satish Kumar | V. K. Bansal

© 2016 Higher Education Press Limited Company. Worker safety during construction is widely accepted, but the selection of safe sites for a building is generally not considered. Safe site selection (SSS) largely depends upon compiling, analyzing, and refining the information of an area where a building is likely to be located. The locational and topographical aspects of an area located in hilly regions play a major role in SSS, but are generally neglected in traditional and CAD-based systems used for site selection. Architects and engineers select a site based on their judgment, knowledge, and experience, but issues related to site safety are generally ignored. This study reviewed the existing literature on site selection techniques, building codes, and approaches of existing standards to identify various aspects crucial for SSS in hilly regions. A questionnaire survey was conducted to identify various aspects that construction professionals consider critical for SSS. This study explored the application of geographic information systems (GIS) in modeling the locational and topographical aspects to identify areas of suitability. A GIS-based methodology for locating a safe site that satisfies various spatial safety aspects was developed.

Traditional Iranian courtyards as microclimate modifiers by considering orientation, dimensions, and proportions

Volume 5, Issue 2, June 2016, Pages 225-238
Farzaneh Soflaei | Mehdi Shokouhian | Seyed Majid Mofidi Shemirani

© 2016 The Authors. The effect of courtyards as microclimate modifiers on the sustainability of traditional houses in a region with BWks mesoclimate in Iran was explored. The principle behind traditional Iranian courtyards was investigated to identify the most influential physical-environmental characteristics that can effectively improve energy efficiency in contemporary residential buildings. A field study was performed to analyze various physical elements of six valuable traditional courtyard houses located in a region with BWks mesoclimate in Iran. These elements included the orientation, extension, rotation angle, dimensions, and proportions of enclosed and open spaces, as well as physical bodies (opaque walls), transparent surfaces (openings), and natural elements (water and soil). Results showed that most of the studied Iranian courtyards were particularly designed to enable orientation, dimension, and proportion to act as microclimate modifiers. All survey-based data were summarized and integrated to propose a physical-environmental design model for courtyards as a useful energy-efficient strategy for contemporary sustainable housing in a region with BWks mesoclimate. The proposed model can be generalized to all design cases located in areas with similar climatic conditions.

Evolution of Islamic geometric patterns

Volume 2, Issue 2, June 2013, Pages 243-251
Yahya Abdullahi | Mohamed Rashid Bin Embi

© 2013 Higher Education Press Limited Company. This research demonstrates the suitability of applying Islamic geometrical patterns (IGPs) to architectural elements in terms of time scale accuracy and style matching. To this end, a detailed survey is conducted on the decorative patterns of 100 surviving buildings in the Muslim architectural world. The patterns are analyzed and chronologically organized to determine the earliest surviving examples of these adorable ornaments. The origins and radical artistic movements throughout the history of IGPs are identified. With consideration for regional impact, this study depicts the evolution of IGPs, from the early stages to the late 18th century.

Simulation-based feasibility study of improved air conditioning systems for hospital operating room

Volume 2, Issue 4, December 2013, Pages 468-475
Zhiqiang John Zhai | Anna L. Osborne

© 2013 Higher Education Press Limited Company. The goal of the air distribution inside a hospital operating room (OR) is to protect the patient and staff from cross-infection while maintaining occupant comfort and not affecting the facilitation of surgical tasks. In ORs, HEPA-filtered air and vertical (downward) laminar airflow are often used to achieve a unidirectional flow of fresh air from ceiling, washing over the patient and flowing out of exhaust vents on the side walls, near the floor. However, previous research has shown that this method does not necessarily achieve the desired unidirectional flow pattern or adequately achieve optimal air asepsis. The results from this study show that maximizing the area of the laminar flow diffusers remedies this issue and provides very low contamination levels. The use of air curtains as specified by manufacturers of commercial products may not provide satisfactory results, with noticeable contamination levels at the wound site.

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