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Most Cited Animal Nutrition Articles

The most cited articles published since 2014, extracted from Scopus.

Towards the control of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens with in-feed antibiotics phasing-out worldwide

Volume 1, Issue 1, March 2015, Pages 1-11
Shawkat A. M'Sadeq | Shubiao Wu | Robert A. Swick | Mingan Choct | Mingan Choct

© 2015 Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine Poultry production has undergone a substantial increase compared to the livestock industries since 1970. However, the industry worldwide is now facing challenges with the removal of in-feed antibiotics completely or gradually, as the once well-controlled poultry diseases have re-emerged to cause tremendous loss of production. Necrotic enteritis (NE) is one of the most important diseases which costs the industry over two billion dollars annually. In this paper, we review the progress on the etiology of NE and its control through dietary modifications, pre- and probiotics, short chain fatty acids, and vaccination. The other likely measures resulted in the most advances in the toxin characterization are also discussed. Vaccine strategies may have greater potential for the control of NE mainly due to clearer etiology of NE having been elucidated in recent years with the identification of necrotic enteritis toxin B-like (NetB) toxin. Therefore, the use of alternatives to in-feed antibiotics with a better understanding of the relationship between nutrition and NE, and limiting exposure to infectious agents through biosecurity and vaccination, might be a tool to reduce the incidence of NE and to improve gut health in the absence of in-feed antibiotics. More importantly, the combinations of different measures may achieve greater protection of birds against the disease. Among all the alternatives investigated, prebiotics, organic acids and vaccination have shown improved gastrointestinal health and thus, have potential for the control of NE.

The influence of graded levels of available phosphorus on growth performance, muscle antioxidant and flesh quality of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

Volume 1, Issue 2, June 2015, Pages 77-84
Jing Wen | Weidan Jiang | Weidan Jiang | Weidan Jiang | Lin Feng | Lin Feng | Lin Feng | Shengyao Kuang | Jun Jiang | Jun Jiang | Jun Jiang | Ling Tang | Xiaoqiu Zhou | Xiaoqiu Zhou | Xiaoqiu Zhou | Yang Liu | Yang Liu | Yang Liu

© 2015 Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine Growth, muscle composition, meat quality characteristics and antioxidant capacity in muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (initial weight 282.9 ± 3.3 g) fed graded levels of phosphorus (1.0, 2.5, 3.8, 5.6, 7.8 and 9.5 g/kg diet) for 8 wk were investigated. Results indicated that percentage weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, serum phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase were improved with optimal phosphorus supplementations (P < 0.05). Muscle protein content and water holding capacity were significantly elevated, while moisture, lipid and ash contents were significantly decreased with dietary phosphorus to a certain level (P < 0.05). The meat shear force value and hydroxyproline content were not influenced by different levels of phosphorus. Muscle anti-hydroxyl radical, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase activities and glutathione content were significantly improved (P < 0.05). Conversely, anti-superoxide anion, glutathione reducase and glutathione peroxidase activities were decreased (P < 0.05) with dietary phosphorus to a certain level. These results indicated that suitable dietary phosphorus improved growth performance, meat quality and muscle antioxidant capacity. Dietary available phosphorus requirement of young grass carp for percentage weight gain was 4.0 g/kg diet.

Antioxidant systems in chick embryo development. Part 1. Vitamin E, carotenoids and selenium

Volume 2, Issue 1, March 2016, Pages 1-11
Peter F. Surai | Peter F. Surai | Peter F. Surai | Peter F. Surai | Peter F. Surai | Vladimir I. Fisinin | Vladimir I. Fisinin | Filiz Karadas

© 2016 Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine Chick viability is known to be an important factor determining profitability of the poultry industry. Chick embryo tissues contain a high proportion of highly polyunsaturated fatty acids in the lipid fraction and therefore need antioxidant defence. The antioxidant system of the developing embryo and newly hatched chick includes the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase), water-soluble antioxidants (ascorbic acid, taurine, carnitine, glutathione, etc.), fat-soluble antioxidants (vitamin E, carotenoids, coenzyme Q) as well as selenium (Se). In fact, the high levels of endogenous antioxidants within the egg and embryonic tissues can clearly serve as a major adaptive mechanism for the protection of the tissue during the oxidative stress experienced at hatching. It has been shown that among different nutrients in the maternal diet which could significantly affect chick embryo development and their viability in the early posthatch life, natural antioxidants have been suggested to play a central role. Our data indicate that increased supplementation of the maternal diet can substantially increase concentrations of vitamin E, carotenoids (especially canthaxanthin) and Se in developing chick tissues and significantly decrease susceptibility to lipid peroxidation being effective nutritional tools to deal with various commercial stresses in poultry production.

Specialized protein products in broiler chicken nutrition: A review

Volume 1, Issue 2, June 2015, Pages 47-53
Sleman S.M. Beski | Robert A. Swick | Paul A. Iji

© 2015 Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine In poultry nutrition, most attention is given to protein products, due to the importance of protein as a major constituent of the biologically active compounds in the body. It also assists in the synthesis of body tissue, for that renovation and growth of the body. Furthermore, protein exists in form of enzymes and hormones which play important roles in the physiology of any living organism. Broilers have high dietary protein requirements, so identification of the optimum protein concentration in broiler diets, for either maximizing broiler performance or profit, requires more knowledge about birds' requirements for protein and amino acids and their effects on the birds' growth performance and development. It also requires knowledge about the protein sources available that can be used in poultry diets. The broad aim of this review is to highlight the importance of some of the available high-quality specialized protein products of both animal and plant origins which can be explored for feeding broiler chickens. Minimization of the concentration of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) and supplementation with immunologically active compounds are the main focus of gut health-promoting broiler diets. These diet characteristics are influenced by feed ingredient composition and feed processing. The general hypothesis is that these protein products are highly digestible and devoid of or contain less ANFs. Feeding these products to broiler chicks, especially at an earlier age, can assist early gut development and digestive physiology, and improve broiler growth performance and immunity.

Novel probiotics: Their effects on growth performance, gut development, microbial community and activity of broiler chickens

Volume 1, Issue 3, September 2015, Pages 184-191
Chen G. Olnood | Chen G. Olnood | Sleman S.M. Beski | Mingan Choct | Mingan Choct | Paul A. Iji

© 2015 A total of 294 one-day-old Cobb broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of four Lactobacillus strains on gut microbial profile and production performance. The six dietary treatments, each with 7 replicates were: 1) basal diet (negative control), 2) one of four strains of Lactobacillus (tentatively identified as Lactobacillus johnsonii, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus salivarius and an unidentified Lactobacillus sp.) and 3) basal diet with added zinc-bacitracin (ZnB, 50 mg/kg). Results showed that the addition of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. to the feed did not significantly improve weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion rate (FCR) of broiler chickens raised in cages during the 6-week experimental period, but tended to increase the number of total anaerobic bacteria in the ileum and caeca, and the number of lactic acid bacteria and lactobacilli in the caeca; and to significantly increase the small intestinal weight (jejunum and ileum). Furthermore, all 4 probiotics tended to reduce the number of Enterobacteria in the ileum, compared with the control treatments. The probiotics did not affect the pH and the concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and lactic acid in both the ileum and caeca.

Review on biological degradation of mycotoxins

Volume 2, Issue 3, September 2016, Pages 127-133
Cheng Ji | Yu Fan | Lihong Zhao

© 2016 Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine The worldwide contamination of feeds and foods with mycotoxins is a significant problem. Mycotoxins pose huge health threat to animals and humans. As well, mycotoxins bring enormous economic losses in food industry and animal husbandry annually. Thus, strategies to eliminate or inactivate mycotoxins in food and feed are urgently needed. Traditional physical and chemical methods have some limitations such as limited efficacy, safety issues, losses in the nutritional value and the palatability of feeds, as well as the expensive equipment required to implement these techniques. Biological degradation of mycotoxins has shown promise because it works under mild, environmentally friendly conditions. Aflatoxin (AF), zearalenone (ZEA) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are considered the most economically important mycotoxins in terms of their high prevalence and significant negative effects on animal performance. Therefore, this review will comprehensively describe the biological degradation of AF, ZEA and DON by microorganisms (including fungi and bacteria) and specific enzymes isolated from microbial systems that can convert mycotoxins with varied efficiency to non- or less toxic products. Finally, some strategies and advices on existing difficulties of biodegradation research are also briefly proposed in this paper.

Impact of mycotoxin on immune response and consequences for pig health

Volume 2, Issue 2, June 2016, Pages 63-68
Alix Pierron | Alix Pierron | Alix Pierron | Imourana Alassane-Kpembi | Imourana Alassane-Kpembi | Isabelle P. Oswald | Isabelle P. Oswald

© 2016 Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites detected in many agricultural commodities, especially cereals. Due to their high consumption of cereals, pigs are exposed to these toxins. In the European Union, regulations and/or recommendations exist in pig feed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, zearalenone, and trichothecenes, deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin. These mycotoxins have different toxic effects, but they all target the immune system. They have immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive effects depending on the toxin, the concentration and the parameter investigated. The immune system is primarily responsible for defense against invading organisms. The consequences of the ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated feed are an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, a reactivation of chronic infection and a decreased vaccine efficacy. In this review we summarized the data available on the effect of mycotoxins on the immune system and the consequences for pig health.

Dietary sources and their effects on animal production and environmental sustainability

Volume 1, Issue 3, September 2015, Pages 96-103
Metha Wanapat | Anusorn Cherdthong | Kampanat Phesatcha | Sungchhang Kang

© 2015 Animal agriculture has been an important component in the integrated farming systems in developing countries. It serves in a paramount diversified role in producing animal protein food, draft power, farm manure as well as ensuring social status-quo and enriching livelihood. Ruminants are importantly contributable to the well-being and the livelihood of the global population. Ruminant production systems can vary from subsistence to intensive type of farming depending on locality, resource availability, infrastructure accessibility, food demand and market potentials. The growing demand for sustainable animal production is compelling to researchers exploring the potential approaches to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from livestock. Global warming has been an issue of concern and importance for all especially those engaged in animal agriculture. Methane (CH4) is one of the major GHG accounted for at least 14% of the total GHG with a global warming potential 25-fold of carbon dioxide and a 12-year atmospheric lifetime. Agricultural sector has a contribution of 50 to 60% methane emission and ruminants are the major source of methane contribution (15 to 33%). Methane emission by enteric fermentation of ruminants represents a loss of energy intake (5 to 15% of total) and is produced by methanogens (archae) as a result of fermentation end-products. Ruminants׳ digestive fermentation results in fermentation end-products of volatile fatty acids (VFA), microbial protein and methane production in the rumen. Rumen microorganisms including bacteria, protozoa and fungal zoospores are closely associated with the rumen fermentation efficiency. Besides using feed formulation and feeding management, local feed resources have been used as alternative feed additives for manipulation of rumen ecology with promising results for replacement in ruminant feeding. Those potential feed additive practices are as follows: 1) the use of plant extracts or plants containing secondary compounds (e.g., condensed tannins and saponins) such as mangosteen peel powder, rain tree pod; 2) plants rich in minerals, e.g., banana flower powder; and 3) plant essential oils, e.g., garlic, eucalyptus leaf powder, etc. Implementation of the -feed-system using cash crop and leguminous shrubs or fodder trees are of promising results.

Epigenetic modulation of DNA methylation by nutrition and its mechanisms in animals

Volume 1, Issue 3, September 2015, Pages 144-151
Naifeng Zhang

© 2015 It is well known that phenotype of animals may be modified by the nutritional modulations through epigenetic mechanisms. As a key and central component of epigenetic network, DNA methylation is labile in response to nutritional influences. Alterations in DNA methylation profiles can lead to changes in gene expression, resulting in diverse phenotypes with the potential for decreased growth and health. Here, I reviewed the biological process of DNA methylation that results in the addition of methyl groups to DNA; the possible ways including methyl donors, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and other cofactors, the critical periods including prenatal, postnatal and dietary transition periods, and tissue specific of epigenetic modulation of DNA methylation by nutrition and its mechanisms in animals.

Effect of dietary supplementation of xylanase on apparent ileal digestibility of nutrients, viscosity of digesta, and intestinal morphology of growing pigs fed corn and soybean meal based diet

Volume 1, Issue 1, March 2015, Pages 19-23
Adsos Adami Passos | Inkyung Park | Peter Ferket | Elke von Heimendahl | Sung Woo Kim

© 2015 Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine This study was to determine apparent ileal digestibility of acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), dry matter (DM), energy, organic matter (OM), crude ash, digesta viscosity, and gut morphology in nursery pigs fed diets containing xylanase (Lohmann Animal Nutrition GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany). The diet (61% corn, 35% soybean meal, 1% poultry fat, and 3% minerals and vitamins) was mixed with 3 levels of xylanase (0, 700, and 1400 LXU/kg). Thirty-six barrows (17.6 ± 3.3 kg) received one of 3 treatment diets based on a randomized complete block design with the initial body weight (BW) as a block. Pigs were individually housed and received experimental diets twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) at a fixed amount based on BW of pigs (0.09 × BW0.75 kg). Pigs were fed diets for 10 d, and chromium oxide (0.3%) was added to the diets from d 6 as an indigestible external marker. Pigs were euthanized at the end of d 10 for the collection of digesta and tissues. Jejunal digesta were centrifuged to measure viscosity using a viscometer (Brookfield Engineering Laboratories, Stoughton, MA). Diets and freeze-dried ileal digesta were used to measure ADF, NDF, and chromium to calculate apparent ileal digestibility of ADF and NDF. Villus height and crypt depth of jejunum were measured using a microscope (Fisher Scientific, Hampton, NH). Data were analyzed using polynomial contrasts in the MIXED procedure of SAS version 9.3 (SAS Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Morphological measurements and ileal ADF digestibility were not affected by increasing xylanase. However, increasing xylanase supplementation from 0 to 1400 LXU/kg enhanced ileal digestibility of NDF (P < 0.042, linear) from 27.9 to 40.3%, DM (P < 0.006, linear) from 55.4 to 64.6%, OM (P < 0.006, linear) from 59.2 to 67.7%, and energy (P < 0.003, linear) from 58.8 to 68.0%. Viscosity of jejunal digesta decreased (P < 0.023) in a non-linear manner from 2.9 to 2.5 centipoises (cP). In conclusion, the usage of xylanase in corn and soybean meal based pig diets linearly enhanced digestibility of nutrients and affected viscosity of digesta in a non-linear manner.

Effect of dietary supplementation with protease on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, digestive enzymes and gene expression of weaned piglets

Volume 1, Issue 4, December 2015, Pages 276-282
Jianjun Zuo | Baoming Ling | Lina Long | Tiejun Li | Ludovic Lahaye | Chengbo Yang | Dingyuan Feng

© 2015 Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary protease supplementation on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology, digestive enzymes and gene expression in weaned piglets. A total of 300 weaned piglets (21 days of age Duroc × Large White × Landrace; initial BW = 6.27 ± 0.45 kg) were randomly divided into 5 groups. The 5 diets were: 1) positive control diet (PC), 2) negative control diet (NC), and 3) protease supplementations, which were 100, 200, and 300 mg per kg NC diet. Results indicated that final BW, ADG, ADFI, crude protein digestibility, enzyme activities of stomach pepsin, pancreatic amylase and trypsin, plasma total protein, and intestinal villus height were higher for the PC diet and the supplementations of 200 and 300 mg protease per kg NC diet than for the NC diet (P < 0.05). Supplementations of 200 and 300 mg protease per kg NC diet significantly increased the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (VH:CD) of duodenum, jejunum and ileum compared with NC diet (P < 0.05). Feed to gain ratio, diarrhea index, blood urea nitrogen, and diamine oxidase were lower for the PC diet and supplementations of 200 and 300 mg protease per kg NC diet than for the NC diet (P < 0.05). Piglets fed the PC diet had a higher peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) mRNA abundance in duodenum than piglets fed the NC diet (P < 0.05), and supplementations of 100, 200 and 300 mg protease per kg NC diet increased the PepT1 mRNA abundance in duodenum (P < 0.05) comparing with the NC diet. Piglets fed the PC diet had a higher b0,+AT mRNA abundance in jejunum than piglets fed the NC diet (P < 0.05), and supplementations of 200 and 300 mg protease per kg NC diet increased the b0,+AT mRNA abundance in jejunum and ileum comparing with the NC diet (P < 0.05). In summary, dietary protease supplementation increases growth performance in weaned piglets, which may contribute to the improvement of intestinal development, protein digestibility, nutrient transport efficiency, and health status of piglets when fed low digestible protein sources.

Nano zinc, an alternative to conventional zinc as animal feed supplement: A review

Volume 2, Issue 3, September 2016, Pages 134-141
Partha S. Swain | Somu B.N. Rao | Duraisamy Rajendran | George Dominic | Sellappan Selvaraju

© 2016 Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine The uniqueness of Zn is that, it is the second most abundant trace element in the animal body but can't be stored in the body, thus regular dietary intake is required. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NP) particles are being extensively used in paints, skin lotions pigments, food, electronics appliances, biological and pharmaceutical applications and many more. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are the specially prepared mineral salt having particle size of 1 to 100 nm. It promotes growth can act as antibacterial agent, modulates the immunity and reproduction of the animals. Both in lower and higher doses of specifications it has exhibited a variety of effects on animal performances. Apart from being highly bio-available, reports have already pointed out the growth promoting, antibacterial, immuno-modulatory and many more effects of nano zinc (nZn). These can be used at lower doses and can provide better result than the conventional Zn sources and indirectly prevents environmental contamination also. The toxicological studies provide mixed results in animal models. Studies been undertaken in diversified animal species and encouraging effects have been reported with nZn supplementation. However, there is a need to optimize the dose and duration of ZnO NP supplementation for human and livestock, depending on its biological effects. Actual bioavailability of ZnO NP in livestock is still to be worked out. In this review we have attempted to summarize, conclude the beneficial effects of nZnO and its possible usage as mineral supplement to different categories of human and livestock.

Effects of dietary yeast nucleotides on growth, non-specific immunity, intestine growth and intestinal microbiota of juvenile hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus ♀ × Oreochromis aureus ♂

Volume 1, Issue 3, September 2015, Pages 244-251
Li Xu | Chao Ran | Suxu He | Jianli Zhang | Jun Hu | Yalin Yang | Zhenyu Du | Yanou Yang | Zhigang Zhou

© 2015 This study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of yeast nucleotides on the growth, non-specific immunity, intestine growth and intestinal microbiota of juvenile hybrid tilapia. Tilapia (initial average weight of 8.02 g) was fed test diets supplemented with a yeast-originated nucleotide mixture (0, 0.15, 0.30, 0.60, and 1.20 g/100 g diet) for 8 weeks. Fish fed the diet with 0.60% nucleotide had significantly higher weight gain than the control group (P < 0.05). Feed efficiency was improved in the fish fed 0.60 and 1.20% nucleotide compared with that in the control group. The optimal doses of nucleotides supplementation for growth and feed efficiency of fish were determined as 0.63 and 0.81%, respectively. Intestinal growth was improved in the 0.30 and 0.60% groups, as indicated by significant increase in intestine length. The fish fed 0.60 and 1.20% nucleotide showed higher super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity and lower malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the liver than the control fish, indicating enhancement of the anti-oxidant status. Serum lysozyme activity was significantly increased in the 0.15 and 0.3% nucleotide supplementation groups, suggesting an enhancement effect on the non-specific immune response. Lastly, dietary nucleotides supplementation exerted moderate influence on the intestinal microbiota of hybrid tilapia. A reduction in the cumulative abundance of putative butyrate-producing species was observed in the intestinal microbiota of fish fed diets with 0.60% nucleotide compared with the control, implying an interaction between dietary nucleotides and butyrate production. Briefly, dietary supplementation with 0.60% nucleotide improve the growth performance, immune activity and intestine growth in tilapia.

Effects of feed form and feed particle size on growth performance, carcass characteristics and digestive tract development of broilers

Volume 1, Issue 3, September 2015, Pages 252-256
Mingbin Lv | Lei Yan | Zhengguo Wang | Sha An | Miaomiao Wu | Zunzhou Lv

© 2016 This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feed form (mash and crumble-pellet) and feed particle size (fine, medium and coarse) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and digestive tract development of broilers. A total of 1,152 one day-old Ross 308 mixed-sex broilers were used in a factorial arrangement (2 × 3) based on a completely randomized design with six replicates of 32 birds each. Higher average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were observed (P < 0.01) for birds fed the crumble-pellet diets (CPD) than for those fed the mash diets (MD) during starter, grower and the entire experiment period. From d 1 to 40, birds fed CPD had a higher (P < 0.01) body weight (BW) than those fed MD. Birds fed CPD had a lower (P < 0.01) feed:gain ratio (F:G) during the starter phase than those fed MD. Medium or coarse particle size increased (P < 0.01) ADG and ADFI during the starter phase, but birds fed fine particle size diets had lower (P < 0.01) F:G during the grower phase. In MD, medium and coarse particle sizes resulted in higher (P < 0.05) BW, ADG and ADFI than fine particle size during the whole experiment. In CPD, particle size had no significant effect on growth performance, as indicated by a feed form × particle size interaction (P < 0.05). At 41 days of age, ten birds per treatment were randomly selected and killed for slaughter yields and digestive tract characteristics determination. It was shown that particle size and feed form alone had no significant effect on slaughter yields, so changes was the feed form × particle size interaction. The relative empty weight of the gizzard was greater (P < 0.01) and the relative length of the ileum was longer (P < 0.05) in birds fed MD than in those fed CPD. Overall, CPD improved growth performance during the entire period of the study with effects being less evident during the finisher phase than during the starter and grower phases, and the effect of feed particle size varied depending on feed form.

Delivery routes for probiotics: Effects on broiler performance, intestinal morphology and gut microflora

Volume 1, Issue 3, September 2015, Pages 192-202
Chen G. Olnood | Sleman S.M. Beski | Paul A. Iji | Mingan Choct | Mingan Choct

© 2015 Four delivery routes, via, feed, water, litter and oral gavage, were examined for their efficacy in delivering a novel probiotic of poultry origin, Lactobacillus johnsonii, to broilers. Seven treatments of 6 replicates each were allocated using 336 one-day-old Cobb broiler chicks. The treatments consisted of a basal diet with the probiotic candidate, L. johnsonii, added to the feed, and three treatments with L. johnsonii added to the drinking water, sprayed on the litter, or gavaged orally. In addition, a positive control treatment received the basal diet supplemented with zinc-bacitracin (ZnB, 50 mg/kg). The probiotic strain of L. johnsonii was detected in the ileum of the chicks for all four delivery routes. However, the addition of L. johnsonii as a probiotic candidate did not improve body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens raised on litter during the 5-week experimental period regardless of the route of administration. The probiotic treatments, regardless of the routes of delivery, affected (P < 0.05) the pH of the caecal digesta and tended (P = 0.06) to affect the pH of the ileal digesta on d 7, but the effect disappeared as the birds grew older. All probiotic treatments reduced the number of Enterobacteria in the caeca on d 21, and tended (P < 0.054) to reduce it in the ileum and caeca on d 7 and in the ileum on d 21 compared with the controls. The probiotic also tended to increase the number of lactic acid bacteria and lactobacilli in the ileum and caeca on d 7, but this trend was not evident on d 21. The trend appeared most pronounced when the probiotic was delivered orally or via litter. The probiotic also decreased (P < 0.05) the population of Clostridium perfringens rapidly from an early age to d 21 in the caeca, leading to a 3-fold decrease in the number of C. perfringens between d 7 and 21. It also showed that the probiotic treatment presented the lowest number of C. perfringens in the caeca. Delivery of the probiotic through feed, water and litter increased (P < 0.01) the weight of the pancreas on d 21, but the probiotic did not affect other morphometric parameters of the gut. Furthermore, the probiotic did not affect the pH and the concentrations of short chain fatty acids and lactic acid in either the ileum or caeca.

Sustainable livestock production: Low emission farm – The innovative combination of nutrient, emission and waste management with special emphasis on Chinese pig production

Volume 1, Issue 3, September 2015, Pages 104-112
Thomas Kaufmann

© 2015 Global livestock production is going to be more and more sophisticated in order to improve efficiency needed to supply the rising demand for animal protein of a growing, more urban and affluent population. To cope with the rising public importance of sustainability is a big challenge for all animal farmers and more industrialized operations especially. Confined animal farming operations (CAFO) are seen very critical by many consumers with regard to their sustainability performance, however, the need to improve the sustainability performance especially in the ecological and social dimension exists at both ends of the intensity, i.e., also for the small holder and family owned animal farming models. As in livestock operations, feed and manure contribute the majority to the three most critical environmental impact categories global warming potential (GWP), acidification (AP) and eutrophication potential (EP) any effort for improvement should start there. Intelligent combination of nutrient-, emission- and waste management in an integrated low emission farm (LEF) concept not only significantly reduces the environmental footprint in the ecological dimension of sustainability, but by producing renewable energy (heat, electricity, biomethane) with animal manure as major feedstock in an anaerobic digester also the economic dimension can be improved. Model calculations using new software show the ecological improvement potential of low protein diets using more supplemented amino acids for the Chinese pig production. The ecological impact of producing biogas or upgraded biomethane, of further treatment of the digestate and producing defined fertilizers is discussed. Finally, the LEF concept allows the integration of an insect protein plant module which offers additional ecological and economical sustainability improvement potential in the future. Active stakeholder communication about implementation steps of LEF examples improves also the social aspect of sustainability.

Performance of broiler chickens offered nutritionally-equivalent diets based on two red grain sorghums with quantified kafirin concentrations as intact pellets or re-ground mash following steam-pelleting at 65 or 97°C conditioning temperatures

Volume 1, Issue 3, September 2015, Pages 220-228
Ha H. Truong | Ha H. Truong | Karlie A. Neilson | Bernard V. McInerney | Ali Khoddami | Thomas H. Roberts | Sonia Yun Liu | Peter H. Selle

© 2015 The Liverpool Plains is a fertile agricultural region in New South Wales, Australia. Two sorghums from the 2009 Liverpool Plains harvest, sorghums #3 and #5, were extensively characterised which included concentrations of kafirin and phenolic compounds plus rapid visco-analysis (RVA) starch pasting profiles. Diets based on these two sorghums were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic and were offered to male Ross 308 broiler chicks from 7 to 28 days post–hatch as either intact pellets or reground mash following steam-pelleting at conditioning temperatures of either 65 or 97°C. Thus the feeding study consisted of a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial array of dietary treatments: two sorghum varieties, two feed forms and two conditioning temperatures. Each of the eight treatments was replicated six times with six birds per replicate cage. Assessed parameters included growth performance, nutrient utilisation, apparent starch and protein (N) digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates from the distal jejunum and distal ileum. Intact pellets supported higher (P < 0.001) feed intakes and weight gains by 9.83 and 9.08%, respectively, than reground mash diets. Feed conversion ratios of broilers offered diets steam-conditioned at 97°C were 2.46% inferior (P < 0.001) in comparison to 65°C diets and both apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and N-corrected AME (AMEn) were compromised. Broilers offered sorghum #3-based diets significantly (P < 0.001) outperformed their sorghum #5 counterparts in terms of weight gain by 3.75% (1,334 versus 1,223 g/bird), FCR by 4.81% (1.524 versus 1.601), AME by 1.06 MJ (13.61 versus 12.55 MJ/kg), ME:GE ratio (ME:GE) by 4.81% (0.806 versus 0.769) and AMEn by 1.03 MJ (12.38 versus 11.35 MJ/kg). The inferiority of sorghum #5 appeared to be associated with higher concentrations of kafirin (61.5 versus 50.7 g/kg) and conjugated phenolic acids, including ferulic acid (31.1 versus 25.6 µg/g). There were no significant differences in jejunal and ileal starch and protein (N) digestibility coefficients between the two sorghums. However, starch to protein (N) disappearance rate ratios from the distal jejunum were significantly (P < 0.001) correlated with ME:GE and AME. The multiple linear regression equations indicated that energy utilisation was enhanced by coupling rapidly digestible protein with slowly digestible starch, which suggests that bilateral bioavailability of starch and protein is pivotal to efficient energy utilisation.

Cassava: Nutrient composition and nutritive value in poultry diets

Volume 2, Issue 4, December 2016, Pages 253-261
Natalie K. Morgan | Mingan Choct

© 2016 Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine Insufficient supply, high prices and competition with the human food and biofuel industries means there is a continuous demand for alternative energy sources for poultry. As a result, cassava is becoming an increasingly important ingredient in poultry diets, largely due to its high availability. Efficient use of cassava products has been shown to reduce feed costs of poultry production. The utilisation of cassava is, however, limited by a number of factors, including its high fibre and low energy content and the presence of anti-nutritional factors, primarily hydrocyanic acid (HCN). With correct processing the inclusion level of cassava in poultry diets could be increased. Extensive research has been conducted on cassava products for poultry, but there is still a lack of consistency amongst the measured nutritive values for cassava and its products, hence variation exists in results from poultry studies. This paper reviews the nutrient composition of cassava products and its value as an alternative energy source in poultry diets.

Effects of applying lactic acid bacteria to the fermentation on a mixture of corn steep liquor and air-dried rice straw

Volume 2, Issue 3, September 2016, Pages 229-233
Xinxin Li | Wenbin Xu | Jinshan Yang | Hongbo Zhao | Chunfang Pan | Xue Ding | Yonggen Zhang

© 2016 Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine This study was to determine the fermentation quality of a mixture of corn steep liquor (CSL) (178 g/kg wet basis) and air-dried rice straw (356 g/kg wet basis) after being treated with inoculants of different types of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The treatments included the addition of no LAB additive (control), which was deionized water; homo-fermentative LAB alone (hoLAB), which was Lactobacillus plantarum alone), and a mixture of homo-fermentative and hetero-fermentative LAB (he + hoLAB), which were L. plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus buchneri. The results showed that the inoculation of the mixture of CSL and air-dried rice straw with he + hoLAB significantly increased the concentration of acetic acid and lactic acid compared with the control (P < 0.05). The addition of he + hoLAB effectively inhibited the growth of yeast in the silage. The concentration of total lactic acid bacteria in the he + hoLAB-treated silage was significant higher than those obtained in other groups (P < 0.05). The duration of the aerobic stability of the silages increased from 56 h to >372 h. The control group was the first to spoil, whereas the silage treated with he + hoLAB remained stable throughout the 372 h period of monitoring. The results demonstrated that the he + hoLAB could effectively improve the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of the silage.

Select nutrients and their effects on conceptus development in mammals

Volume 1, Issue 3, September 2015, Pages 85-95
Fuller W. Bazer | Xiaoqiu Wang | Greg A. Johnson | Guoyao Wu

© 2015 The dialogue between the mammalian conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated membranes) involves signaling for pregnancy recognition and maintenance of pregnancy during the critical peri-implantation period of pregnancy when the stage is set for implantation and placentation that precedes fetal development. Uterine epithelial cells secrete and/or transport a wide range of molecules, including nutrients, collectively referred to as histotroph that are transported into the fetal-placental vascular system to support growth and development of the conceptus. The availability of uterine-derived histotroph has long-term consequences for the health and well-being of the fetus and the prevention of adult onset of metabolic diseases. Histotroph includes numerous amino acids, but arginine plays a particularly important role as a source of nitric oxide and polyamines required for fetal-placental development in rodents, swine and humans through mechanisms that remain to be fully elucidated. Mechanisms whereby arginine regulates expression of genes via the mechanistic target of rapamycin cell signaling pathways critical to conceptus development, implantation and placentation are discussed in detail in this review.

Evaluation of the effect of different wheats and xylanase supplementation on performance, nutrient and energy utilisation in broiler chicks

Volume 2, Issue 3, September 2016, Pages 173-179
Gemma González-Ortiz | Oluyinka Olukosi | Michael R. Bedford

© 2016 Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance, nutrient utilisation and energy metabolism of broiler chicks fed 8 different wheat samples, supplemented or not with xylanase. Seven-hundred sixty eight male broilers (1-day-old) were distributed to 16 experimental treatments (6 replicates per treatment). The treatments were in a factorial arrangement with 8 different wheats and 2 levels of xylanase (0 or 16,000 BXU/kg). The predicted apparent metabolisable energy (AME) of the wheat samples ranged from 13.0 to 13.9 MJ/kg and all diets were formulated to contain the same amount of wheat. Body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI) were measured at 21 d, as was jejunal digesta viscosity, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) calculated. On day 24, one representative bird per pen was selected to calculate whole body energetics. At 21 d, 3 chicks per replicate were randomly allocated to metabolism cages for energy and nutrient utilisation determinations, and were continued on the experimental diets until 24-d-old. No interactions were observed for any performance response variables, ileal nutrient utilisation or digesta viscosity. Xylanase improved BWG and reduced FCR and digesta viscosity (P < 0.05). Wheat influenced dry matter (DM) utilisation and xylanase increased ileal digestible energy (P = 0.04). Xylanase also improved (P < 0.05) DM and nitrogen retention. Apparent metabolisable energy and AME corrected for nitrogen (AMEn) were subject to an interaction whereby wheats 2 and 6, which returned the lowest AME and AMEn values, responded to xylanase supplementation and the remainder did not. Net energy for production and the efficiency of energy use for production were not influenced by xylanase, but were affected by wheat (P < 0.05). Despite the significant differences between wheats with regards to their nutrient utilisation and energy metabolism in birds, xylanase removed this variance and resulted in more homogeneous performance.

The use of near infrared transmittance kernel sorting technology to salvage high quality grain from grain downgraded due to Fusarium damage

Volume 1, Issue 1, March 2015, Pages 41-46
Michael E. Kautzman | Mark L. Wickstrom | Mark L. Wickstrom | Tom A. Scott

© 2015 Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine The mycotoxins associated with specific Fusarium fungal infections of grains are a threat to global food and feed security. These fungal infestations are referred to as Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) and lead to Fusarium Damaged Kernels (FDK). Incidence of FDK >0.25% will lower the grade, with a tolerance of 5% FDK for export feed grain. During infestation, the fungi can produce a variety of mycotoxins, the most common being deoxynivalenol (DON). Fusarium Damaged Kernels have been associated with reduced crude protein (CP), lowering nutritional, functional and grade value. New technology has been developed using Near Infrared Transmittance (NIT) spectra that estimate CP of individual kernels of wheat, barley and durum. Our objective is to evaluate the technology's capability to reduce FDK and DON of downgraded wheat and ability to salvage high quality safe kernels. In five FDK downgraded sources of wheat, the lowest 20% CP kernels had significantly increased FDK and DON with the high CP fractions having decreased FDK and DON, thousand kernel weights (TKW) and bushel weight (Bu). Strong positive correlations were observed between FDK and DON (r = 0.90); FDK and grade (r = 0.62) and DON and grade (r = 0.62). Negative correlations were observed between FDK and DON with CP (r = −0.27 and −0.32); TKW (r = −0.45 and −0.54) and Bu (r = −0.79 and −0.74). Results show improved quality and value of Fusarium downgraded grain using this technology.

Comparative efficacy of a phytogenic feed additive and an antibiotic growth promoter on production performance, caecal microbial population and humoral immune response of broiler chickens inoculated with enteric pathogens

Volume 1, Issue 3, September 2015, Pages 213-219
Toshi Wati | Tapan K. Ghosh | Basharat Syed | Sudipto Haldar

© 2015 The aim of this work was to compare the efficacy of a commercially available phytogenic feed additive (PFA) and an antibiotic growth promoter, which was bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD), on performance, nutrient retention, caecal colonization of bacteria and humoral immune responses against Newcastle disease in broiler chickens challenged orally with Salmonella enteritidis and Escherichia coli. One-day-old male Cobb 400 broiler chicks (n = 120) were fed with 1) a negative control (NC) diet, which is the basal diet without any added growth promoter, 2) a positive control (PC) diet, the basal diet supplemented with BMD, 500 mg/kg and 3) a diet supplemented with PFA (150 mg/kg) for 39 days and the birds were inoculated with S. enteritidis and E. coli on d 28. Supplementation of PFA improved body weight, feed conversion ratio, retention of N and crude fiber, increased fecal moisture content and decreased digesta transit time as compared with the NC and PC groups (P < 0.01). Both the PC and the PFA was found to be equally effective in controlling the surge in numbers of Salmonella and E. coli following oral inoculation of these bacteria as compared with the NC group (P < 0.05) at 24 h past inoculation. Caecal content analysis on d 39 indicated lower numbers of Salmonella, E. coli and Clostridium in the PC and PFA groups as compared with the NC group (P < 0.05). The number of Lactobacillus in the PFA group was higher than those in the NC and PC groups (P < 0.05). Humoral immune response, measured as hemagglutination inhibition titer against Newcastle disease, was better in the PC and PFA groups compared with the NC group (P < 0.05) at d 21 but the difference did not last till d 39. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio was narrower (P < 0.001) and alkaline phosphatase activity was higher (P < 0.01) in the PFA group as compared with the NC and PC groups on d 39. It was concluded that the PFA, which is animal, environment and consumer friendly, may be used as an effective replacement for common in-feed antibiotics like BMD to enhance broiler performance especially when the birds are exposed to heavy infections on fields.

Effects of dietary leucine supplementation on the gene expression of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway and intestinal development of broilers

Volume 1, Issue 4, December 2015, Pages 313-319
Yinlian Chang | Huiyi Cai | Guohua Liu | Wenhuan Chang | Aijuan Zheng | Shu Zhang | Ruibo Liao | Wei Liu | Yang Li | Jia Tian

© 2015 Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine This experiment was to investigate the effects of dietary leucine supplementation on the gene expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and intestinal development of broilers. A total of 384 one-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into 4 treatments with 6 replicates (16 broilers per replicate). Broilers in these treatment groups were offered the following diets with 1.37, 1.77, 2.17 and 2.57% of leucine. These diet treatments were named 1.37TM, 1.77TM, 2.17TM, and 2.57TM. The experiment lasted 21 days and all birds had free access to feed and water. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in body weight, average daily gain and average feed intake among all treatments (P > 0.05). The broiler duodenal villus height in 2.57TM was the lowest, but the highest occurred in 1.37TM on d 7 and 14 (P < 0.05). The villus height in the jejunum and ileum increased along with leucine level from 1.37 to 2.17%. The villus height of jejunum was significantly higher in 2.17TM than in 1.37TM on d 7 and 14, and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (V:C) in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum increased significantly (P < 0.05) on d 21. The gene expression level of mTOR in the duodenum decreased with increasing leucine level and was higher in 1.37TM than in 2.57TM on d 7 and 14 (P < 0.05). On d 14 and 21 of the trial, the expression of S6K1 in the duodenum was higher in 1.37TM than in 2.57TM (P < 0.05), and the expression of mTOR, S6K1 in the jejunum and ileum increased with increasing leucine level form 1.37 to 2.17%, whereas a significant difference occurred between 1.37TM and 2.17TM (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the addition of leucine fails to enhance the growth performance of broilers. However, leucine can improve intestinal development by enhancing villus height and V:C ratio in the jejunum and ileum. Moreover, the expression of mTOR, S6K1 increased as the level of dietary leucine was elevated from 1.37 to 2.17%.

Reducing agent and exogenous protease additions, individually and in combination, to wheat- and sorghum-based diets interactively influence parameters of nutrient utilisation and digestive dynamics in broiler chickens

Volume 2, Issue 4, December 2016, Pages 303-311
Peter H. Selle | Ha H. Truong | Ha H. Truong | Leon R. McQuade | Amy F. Moss | Sonia Yun Liu

© 2016 Chinese Association of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine The objective of the study was to investigate the possibility that tandem inclusions of a reducing agent and a protease may advantage chicken-meat production and to ascertain if the established benefits of including sodium metabisulphite in sorghum-based diets extend to wheat-based diets. The study comprised a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial array of treatments in which either nutritionally iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic wheat- or sorghum-based diets, without and with sodium metabisulphite (2.75 g/kg), without and with protease (1,000 units/kg) were offered to broiler chickens from 7 to 28 days post–hatch. The effects of dietary treatments on growth performance, nutrient utilisation, protein (N) and starch digestibility coefficients and digestive dynamics were determined. A preliminary investigation into the effects of two treatments on concentrations of free amino acids and glucose in the portal circulation was conducted. There was significant feed grain by sodium metabisulphite interactions (P = 0.03 to 0.005) for parameters of nutrient utilisation (AME, ME:GE ratios, N retention, AMEn). For example, sodium metabisulphite inclusions in sorghum-based diets enhanced AME by 0.18 MJ (12.47 versus 12.29 MJ/kg) but depressed AME by 0.43 MJ (11.88 versus 12.31 MJ/kg) in wheat-based diets. There was a linear relationship between starch:protein disappearance rate ratios in the distal ileum with weight gain (r = −0.484; P = 0.0012) indicating that condensed ratios (or absorption of more protein relative to starch) advantaged growth performance. Concentrations of free amino acids in the portal circulation or the post-enteral availability of certain amino acids, including the branched-chain amino acids, methionine, phenylalanine and threonine, were significantly correlated to FCR. For example, threonine concentrations were negatively correlated to FCR (r = −0.773; P = 0.005). Finally, tandem inclusions of sodium metabisulphite and protease in sorghum-based diets may hold merit but it appears that the established ‘energy sparing’ effects of sodium metabisulphite inclusions in sorghum-based diets are not duplicated in wheat-based diets.

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