Open Access



Every peer-reviewed research article appearing in this journal will be published open access. This means that the article is universally and freely accessible via the internet in perpetuity, in an easily readable format immediately after publication.

The author does not have any publication charges for open access. Shandong Normal University will pay to make the article open access permanently.

Peer review under responsibility of Shandong Normal University.

Access Rights
All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read, download, copy and distribute.

User Rights
A CC user license manages the reuse of the article (see http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses). Articles will be published under one of the following licenses according to author's choice:

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC-BY)
Let others to copy, to create extracts, abstracts and new works from the Article, to alter and revise the Article, and to make commercial use of the Article (including reuse and/or resale of the Article by commercial entities), provided the user gives appropriate credit (with a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI), provides a link to the license, indicates if changes were made and the licensor is not represented as endorsing the use made of the work.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

Author rights
For open access publishing this journal uses a licensing agreement. Authors will transfer copyright to Shandong Normal University, but will have the right to share their article in the same way permitted to third parties under the relevant user license, as well as certain scholarly usage rights.

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