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ISSN: 2352-3042
CN: 50-1221/R
p-ISSN: 2352-4820

Cancer chemotherapy and beyond: Current status, drug candidates, associated risks and progress in targeted therapeutics

Cancer is an abnormal state of cells where they undergo uncontrolled proliferation and produce aggressive malignancies that causes millions of deaths every year. With the new understanding of the molecular...

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Breast cancer development and progression: Risk factors, cancer stem cells, signaling pathways, genomics, and molecular pathogenesis

As the most commonly occurring cancer in women worldwide, breast cancer poses a formidable public health challenge on a global scale. Breast cancer consists of a group of biologically and molecularly...

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Clinical applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing system: Delivery options and challenges in precision medicine

CRISPR/Cas9 is an effective gene editing tool with broad applications for the prevention or treatment of numerous diseases. It depends on CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)...

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The Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-kB) signaling in cancer development and immune diseases

The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) family of transcription factors plays an essential role as stressors in the cellular environment, and controls the expression of important regulatory genes such as...

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Age-related macular degeneration: Epidemiology, genetics, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and targeted therapy

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex eye disorder and is the leading cause of incurable blindness worldwide in the elderly. Clinically, AMD initially affects the central area of retina...

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Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling in development and human diseases

Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are a group of signaling molecules that belongs to the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily of proteins. Initially discovered for their ability to induce...

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Canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling: Multilayered mediators, signaling mechanisms and major signaling crosstalk

Wnt signaling plays a major role in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. The Wnt ligands are a family of 19 secreted glycoproteins that mediate their signaling effects via binding to Frizzled...

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Targeting RAS–RAF–MEK–ERK signaling pathway in human cancer: Current status in clinical trials

Molecular target inhibitors have been regularly approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for tumor treatment, and most of them intervene in tumor cell proliferation and metabolism. The RAS–RAF–MEK–ERK...

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Mechanism of PARP inhibitor resistance and potential overcoming strategies

PARP inhibitors (PARPi) are a kind of cancer therapy that targets poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. PARPi is the first clinically approved drug to exert synthetic lethality by obstructing the DNA single-strand...

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A new emerging target in cancer immunotherapy: Galectin-9 (LGALS9)

Over the past few decades, advances in immunological knowledge have led to the identification of novel immune checkpoints, reinvigorating cancer immunotherapy. Immunotherapy, represented by immune checkpoint...

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Temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma multiforme

Temozolomide (TMZ) is an oral alkylating agent used to treat glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and astrocytomas. However, at least 50% of TMZ treated patients do not respond to TMZ. This is due primarily...

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Pretreating and normalizing metabolomics data for statistical analysis

Metabolomics as a research field and a set of techniques is to study the entire small molecules in biological samples. Metabolomics is emerging as a powerful tool generally for precision medicine. Particularly,...

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Studies on the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene and its impact on obesity-associated diseases

Obesity has become a major health crisis in the past ∼50 years. The fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene, identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), was first reported to be positively...

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Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC): Implications on molecular pathology and advances in early diagnostics and therapeutics

Continuous revision of the histologic and stage-wise classification of lung cancer by the World Health Organization (WHO) provides the foundation for therapeutic advances by promoting molecular targeted...

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Adenovirus-mediated gene delivery: Potential applications for gene and cell-based therapies in the new era of personalized medicine

With rapid advances in understanding molecular pathogenesis of human diseases in the era of genome sciences and systems biology, it is anticipated that increasing numbers of therapeutic genes or targets...

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Emergence of antibiotic resistance Pseudomonas aeruginosa in intensive care unit; a critical review

The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the healthcare is a serious concern. In the Healthcare premises precisely intensive care unit are major sources of microbial diversity. Recent findings...

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Dirty environment for adult life: The bad, the good, the unknown

We know the bad things of dirty environment which is associated with infectious diseases. In this Research Watch, we discuss the good and the unknown of dirty environment, based on a recent Nature paper....

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The recent advances and future perspectives of genetic compensation studies in the zebrafish model

Genetic compensation is a remarkable biological concept to explain the genetic robustness in an organism to maintain its fitness and viability if there is a disruption occurred in the genetic variation...

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3-D bioprinting technologies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: Current and future trends

Advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing have increased feasibility towards the synthesis of living tissues. Known as 3D bioprinting, this technology involves the precise layering of cells, biologic...

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Recombinant adeno-associated virus 8 vector in gene therapy: Opportunities and challenges

In recent years, significant breakthroughs have been made in the field of gene therapy. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is one of the most promising gene therapy vectors and a powerful tool for delivering...

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Inflammation and cancer: paradoxical roles in tumorigenesis and implications in immunotherapies

Chronic inflammation caused by persistent infections and metabolic disorders is thought to contribute to the increased cancer risk and the accelerated cancer progression. Oppositely, acute inflammation...

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Obesity as potential breast cancer risk factor for postmenopausal women

Breast cancer is the second highest prevalent cancer globally after lung cancer with 2.09 million cases during 2018. Adults about 1.9 billion were overweight and over 650 million out of these were obese...

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The biogenesis and secretion of exosomes and multivesicular bodies (MVBs): Intercellular shuttles and implications in human diseases

Exosomes carry and transmit signaling molecules used for intercellular communication. The generation and secretion of exosomes is a multistep interlocking process that allows simultaneous control of...

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CRISPR/Cas9 system and its applications in nervous system diseases

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system is an acquired immune system of many bacteria and archaea, comprising CRISPR loci, Cas...

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Drugging IGF-1R in cancer: New insights and emerging opportunities

The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis plays important roles in cancer development and metastasis. The type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R) is a key member in the IGF axis and has long been recognized for...

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