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ISSN: 2542-5684
CN: 44-1725/R
p-ISSN: 2096-2878

Vitamins and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A molecular insight

The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rising rapidly across the globe. NAFLD pathogenesis is largely driven by an imbalance in hepatic energy metabolism, and at present, there...

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Similarities and differences between biliary sludge and microlithiasis: Their clinical and pathophysiological significances

The terms biliary sludge and cholesterol microlithiasis (hereafter referred to as microlithiasis) were originated from different diagnostic techniques and may represent different stages of cholesterol...

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Hemobilia: Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment

Hemobilia refers to bleeding from and/or into the biliary tract and is an uncommon but important cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Reports of hemobilia date back to the 1600s, but due to its relative...

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Alcoholic liver disease: A current molecular and clinical perspective

Heavy alcohol use is the cause of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The ALD spectrum ranges from alcoholic steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. In Western countries, approximately 50%...

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The clinical implication of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in COVID-19

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a life-threatening disease that predominantly causes respiratory failure. The impact of COVID-19 on other organs remains elusive. Herein, we aimed to investigate...

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Up to date on cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in bile acid synthesis

Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1, EC1.14) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the classic bile acid synthesis pathway. Much progress has been made in understanding the transcriptional regulation...

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Clinical perspectives of isoniazid-induced liver injury

Isoniazid (INH) is a synthetic anti-mycobacterial agent used to treat active or latent tuberculosis (TB). INH has been in clinical use for nearly 70 years and remains broadly utilized at the front line...

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Novel organoid model in drug screening: Past, present, and future

Advances in the field of stem cells have led to the development of a technology called organoids. Organoids are cell cluster structures formed by the cultivation of stem cells in a three-dimensional...

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The role of adipose tissue in fatty liver diseases

Fatty liver disease is almost always a consequence of obesity or alcohol abuse. In both cases significant changes to adipose tissue (AT) occur, which are remarkably similar despite their different causes....

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Nutrient mTORC1 signaling contributes to hepatic lipid metabolism in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Energy metabolism is maintained by the complex homeostatic system in multiple cells and organs involving “nutrient signaling” or “nutrient sensor”. Overnutrient-induced chronic metabolic diseases, as...

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Clinical outcome of Yttrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y-90 SIRT) in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: Experience from a tertiary care center

Whereas Yttrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y-90 SIRT) was shown to improve local tumor control in non-Asian population, the efficacy of this therapy for Asian population in real-world...

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Endoplasmic reticulum stress and liver diseases

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when ER homeostasis is perturbed with accumulation of unfolded/misfolded protein or calcium depletion. The unfolded protein response (UPR), comprising of inositol-requiring...

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Dysregulation of glutathione synthesis in liver disease

Glutathione (GSH), a tripeptide that is present in all mammalian tissues, is especially highly concentrated in the liver. GSH synthesis occurs via two adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-requiring enzymatic...

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Bile acid receptors and signaling crosstalk in the liver, gut and brain

Bile acids are physiological detergents derived from cholesterol that aid in digestion and nutrient absorption, and they play roles in glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism and in gut microbiome and...

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Bile acid metabolism and signaling in liver disease and therapy

Bile acids play a critical role in the regulation of glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism through activation of the nuclear bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and membrane G protein-coupled...

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Neuroendocrine tumors with hepatic metastases: A review of evolving treatment options

Once considered exceptionally rare, neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are increasingly common and therefore of growing relevance to both clinicians and researchers. Most patients with such tumors present...

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Immune cells in alcohol-related liver disease

Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD), which is caused by excessive alcohol consumption, is one of the most common types of liver disease and a primary cause of hepatic injury, with a disease spectrum...

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The acidic pathway of bile acid synthesis: Not just an alternative pathway

Over the last two decades, the prevalence of obesity, and metabolic syndromes (MS) such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), have dramatically increased....

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Bile acid receptors and gastrointestinal functions

Bile acids modulate several gastrointestinal (GI) functions including electrolyte secretion and absorption, gastric emptying, and small intestinal and colonic motility. High concentrations of bile acids...

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Pyrrolizidine alkaloids: An update on their metabolism and hepatotoxicity mechanism

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are among the most hepatotoxic natural compounds that are widely distributed throughout the world. Most PAs are metabolically activated to trigger toxicity. Exposure to...

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Portopulmonary hypertension: Current developments and future perspectives

Portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) is a severe pulmonary vascular disease secondary to portal hypertension and a subset of Group 1 pulmonary hypertension (PH). The pathological changes of POPH are indistinguishable...

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Hepatic lipid homeostasis by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ or PPARG) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. It plays a master role in the differentiation...

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Glypican-3: A molecular marker for the detection and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumor with a fairly poor prognosis (5-year survival of less than 50%). Using sorafenib, the only food and drug administration (FDA)-approved drug, HCC cannot...

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Indocyanine green fluorescence imaging: A novel technique in liver transplantation

Indocyanine green (ICG) is a fluorescent dye that is widely used in hepatobiliary surgery for fluorescence contrast. ICG is selectively absorbed by the liver after intravenous injection and then secreted...

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Structural perspectives of the CYP3A family and their small molecule modulators in drug metabolism

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes function to catalyze a wide range of reactions, many of which are critically important for drug response. Members of the human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) family are particularly...

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