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ISSN: 2542-5684
CN: 44-1725/R
p-ISSN: 2096-2878

Similarities and differences between biliary sludge and microlithiasis: Their clinical and pathophysiological significances

The terms biliary sludge and cholesterol microlithiasis (hereafter referred to as microlithiasis) were originated from different diagnostic techniques and may represent different stages of cholesterol...

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Prolonged existence of SARS-CoV-2 RNAs in the extracellular vesicles of respiratory specimens from patients with negative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is primarily in the respiratory tract, particularly in patients with underlying comorbidities. This study aimed to investigate the presence...

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Vitamins and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A molecular insight

The incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rising rapidly across the globe. NAFLD pathogenesis is largely driven by an imbalance in hepatic energy metabolism, and at present, there...

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Iron metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A promising therapeutic target

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, and is closely associated with the increased risk of the prevalence of obesity and diabetes....

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Alcoholic liver disease: A current molecular and clinical perspective

Heavy alcohol use is the cause of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The ALD spectrum ranges from alcoholic steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. In Western countries, approximately 50%...

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Clinical perspectives of isoniazid-induced liver injury

Isoniazid (INH) is a synthetic anti-mycobacterial agent used to treat active or latent tuberculosis (TB). INH has been in clinical use for nearly 70 years and remains broadly utilized at the front line...

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Up to date on cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in bile acid synthesis

Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1, EC1.14) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the classic bile acid synthesis pathway. Much progress has been made in understanding the transcriptional regulation...

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In-depth analysis of de novo lipogenesis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Mechanism and pharmacological interventions

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the abnormal buildup of lipids in the liver tissue. Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) may progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Triglycerides...

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Bile acid metabolism and signaling in liver disease and therapy

Bile acids play a critical role in the regulation of glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism through activation of the nuclear bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and membrane G protein-coupled...

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Glypican-3: A molecular marker for the detection and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumor with a fairly poor prognosis (5-year survival of less than 50%). Using sorafenib, the only food and drug administration (FDA)-approved drug, HCC cannot...

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Dietary pattern and hepatic lipid metabolism

The liver is the leading site for lipid metabolism, involving not only fatty acid beta-oxidation but also de novo synthesis of endogenous triglycerides and ketogenesis. The liver maintains systemic...

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The acidic pathway of bile acid synthesis: Not just an alternative pathway

Over the last two decades, the prevalence of obesity, and metabolic syndromes (MS) such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), have dramatically increased....

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Circadian rhythms and inflammatory diseases of the liver and gut

Circadian rhythms play a central role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis and orchestrating inter-organ crosstalk. Research evidence indicates that disruption to rhythms, which occurs through shift...

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The role of adipose tissue in fatty liver diseases

Fatty liver disease is almost always a consequence of obesity or alcohol abuse. In both cases significant changes to adipose tissue (AT) occur, which are remarkably similar despite their different causes....

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Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: Current status, challenges, and prospects

Local ablation technologies, such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA) and cryoablation, have become a standard treatment option for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) less than 5 cm...

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Hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence: Predictors and management

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the sixth most common cancer globally, is associated with high mortality rates and more than 830,000 annual deaths. Despite advances in the available management options...

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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Dietary and nutraceutical approaches

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined as the presence of fat accumulation in imaging or histology in more than 5% of hepatocytes and exclusion of other causes for secondary hepatic fat...

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Current and emerging therapies for alcohol-associated hepatitis

Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) encompasses a spectrum of diseases caused by excessive alcohol consumption. ALD includes hepatic steatosis, steatohepatitis, variable degrees of fibrosis, cirrhosis,...

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Bile acid receptors and signaling crosstalk in the liver, gut and brain

Bile acids are physiological detergents derived from cholesterol that aid in digestion and nutrient absorption, and they play roles in glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism and in gut microbiome and...

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Autophagy modulates physiologic and adaptive response in the liver

Autophagy is a physiological process that is ubiquitous and essential to the disposal or recycling of damaged cellular organelles and misfolded proteins to maintain organ homeostasis and survival. Its...

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Endoplasmic reticulum stress and liver diseases

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when ER homeostasis is perturbed with accumulation of unfolded/misfolded protein or calcium depletion. The unfolded protein response (UPR), comprising of inositol-requiring...

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Optimization of high throughput spectral flow cytometry for immune cell profiling in mouse liver

The liver plays an important role in both metabolism and immunity. Disruption of the hepatic immune microenvironment is closely associated with various liver diseases. To gain a better understanding...

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Dysregulation of glutathione synthesis in liver disease

Glutathione (GSH), a tripeptide that is present in all mammalian tissues, is especially highly concentrated in the liver. GSH synthesis occurs via two adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-requiring enzymatic...

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Synergistic impacts of rifampicin and doxorubicin against thioacetamide-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats

Combination therapy is a promising new strategy that has been proposed to increase the efficacy of cancer treatment. We aimed to investigate the anti-cancer activity of rifampicin monotherapy and its...

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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease development: A multifactorial pathogenic phenomena

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by the accumulation of excessive intrahepatic fat, is a leading metabolic disorder also considered as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic...

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